The Visual Computer

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 443–458 | Cite as

Generating various composite human faces from real 3D facial images

  • Igor Chalás
  • Petra Urbanová
  • Vojtěch Juřík
  • Zuzana Ferková
  • Marie Jandová
  • Jiří Sochor
  • Barbora Kozlíková
Original Article


Generating large human crowds of distinguishable individuals is one of the challenges in the gaming industry. When the scene contains many characters, it becomes impracticable to create all the individual characters manually. However, the requirement for the different appearances of individuals in a crowd, namely their faces, is now in greater demand. Therefore, this paper describes our solution to the automatic generation of human faces that are created as a composite of facial parts of 3D scans of real human faces. However, the user has the possibility to further adjust the composite by designing replacements, leading to a desired appearance. The final composite can be exported and attached to a given avatar. To evaluate the usability of our solution, we performed two case studies. The conducted perception study performed with 104 participants aimed to confirm the decreasing human ability to recognize morphologically modified faces. The morphological study focused on the quantification of the extent of facial modifications. Both studies were performed by domain experts from psychology and anthropology.


Facial composite 3D face model Face perception Crowd simulation Morphological modification 



This work was supported by the Masaryk University projects MUNI/A/1213/2014, MUNI/33/08/ 2015, MUNI/FR/1843/2014, and MUNI/A/1281/2014.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Igor Chalás
    • 1
  • Petra Urbanová
    • 2
  • Vojtěch Juřík
    • 3
  • Zuzana Ferková
    • 1
  • Marie Jandová
    • 2
  • Jiří Sochor
    • 1
  • Barbora Kozlíková
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Graphics and DesignMasaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyMasaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyMasaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic

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