The Visual Computer

, Volume 32, Issue 6–8, pp 871–880 | Cite as

Physics-inspired controllable flame animation

  • TaeHyeong Kim
  • Jung Lee
  • Chang-Hun KimEmail author
Original Article


We propose a novel method conceptualized from the properties of physics where in particular the shape of a flame is determined by temperature that enables a control mechanism for the intuitive shaping of a flame. We focused on a trade-off issue from computer graphics whereby the turbulent flow that expresses the characteristics of the flame has a tendency to shift continuously, whereas the velocity constraints that contain a fluid within a target shape have a tendency to force movement in a particular direction. Trade-off made it difficult for animation designers to maintain a flame within the intended target shape. This paper resolves the issue by enabling the flame to be controlled without any velocity constraints by using the following two techniques: First, we model the temperature and force of the explosion generated by the combustion of explosive gaseous fuel and apply it to certain regions. Second, we expand the space of the interface between the fuel and the burned products, classifying that space into four regions and controlling the target shape of the flame by delicate adjustments to the temperature in each region. Experiments show that the flame maintains the appearance of dynamic movement while preserving the detailed 3D shapes specified by the scene designers.


Flame animation Physics inspired Temperature control Fluid control 



This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2013R1A1A2011602, NRF-2014R1A2A2A01007143, NRF-2015R1A1A1A05001196, NRF-2015R1C1A2A01053543) and the Technological Innovation R&D Program (S2172401) funded by the Small and Medium Business Administration.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (mp4 23348 KB)


  1. 1.
    Bridson, R.: Fluid Simulation for Computer Graphics. A K Peters/CRC Press (2008).
  2. 2.
    Fattal, R., Lischinski, D.: Target-driven smoke animation. ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 441–448 (2004). doi: 10.1145/1015706.1015743 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Feldman, B.E., O’Brien, J.F., Arikan, O.: Animating suspended particle explosions. ACM Trans. Graph. 22(3), 708–715 (2003). doi: 10.1145/882262.882336 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Foster, N., Metaxas, D.: Controlling fluid animation. In: Proceedings of the 1997 Conference on Computer Graphics International, IEEE Computer Society, CGI ’97, p. 178. Washington, DC, USA (1997).
  5. 5.
    Hong, J.M., Kim, C.H.: Controlling fluid animation with geometric potential. Comput. Animat. Virtual Worlds 15(3–4), 147–157 (2004). doi: 10.1002/cav.v15:3/4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hong, J.M., Kim, C.H.: Discontinuous fluids. ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 915–920 (2005). doi: 10.1145/1073204.1073283 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hong, J.M., Shinar, T., Fedkiw, R.: Wrinkled flames and cellular patterns. ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3) 47:1–47:6 (2007). doi: 10.1145/1276377.1276436
  8. 8.
    Hong, Y., Zhu, D., Qiu, X., Wang, Z.: Geometry-based control of fire simulation. Vis. Comput. 26(9), 1217–1228 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s00371-009-0403-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Horvath, C., Geiger, W.: Directable, high-resolution simulation of fire on the gpu. ACM Trans. Graph. 28(3), 41:1–41:8 (2009). doi: 10.1145/1531326.1531347 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jeong, S., Kim, C.H.: Combustion waves on the point set surface. Comput. Graph. Forum 32(7), 225–234 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kang, M., Fedkiw, R.P., Liu, X.D.: A boundary condition capturing method for multiphase incompressible flow. J. Sci. Comput. 15(3), 323–360 (2000). doi: 10.1023/A:1011178417620 MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kawada, G., Kanai, T.: Procedural fluid modeling of explosion phenomena based on physical properties. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, SCA ’11, pp. 167–176. ACM, New York, NY, USA (2011). doi: 10.1145/2019406.2019429
  13. 13.
    Kim, Y., Machiraju, R., Thompson, D.: Path-based control of smoke simulations. In: Proceedings of the 2006 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, SCA ’06, pp. 33–42. Eurographics Association, Aire-la-Ville, Switzerland, Switzerland (2006).
  14. 14.
    Nguyen, D.Q., Fedkiw, R., Jensen, H.W.: Physically based modeling and animation of fire. ACM Trans. Graph. 21(3), 721–728 (2002). doi: 10.1145/566654.566643 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Raveendran, K., Thuerey, N., Wojtan, C., Turk, G.: Controlling liquids using meshes. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, SCA ’12, pp. 255–264. Eurographics Association, Aire-la-Ville, Switzerland, Switzerland (2012).
  16. 16.
    Ross, G.: The Hunger Games. Lions Gate Films (2012)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Selle, A., Rasmussen, N., Fedkiw, R.: A vortex particle method for smoke, water and explosions. ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 910–914 (2005). doi: 10.1145/1073204.1073282 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sethian, J.: Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods: Evolving Interfaces in Computational Geometry, Fluid Mechanics, Computer Vision, and Materials Science. Cambridge Monographs on Applied and Computational Mathematics. Cambridge University Press (1999).
  19. 19.
    Shi, L., Yu, Y.: Controllable smoke animation with guiding objects. ACM Trans. Graph. 24(1), 140–164 (2005). doi: 10.1145/1037957.1037965 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shi, L., Yu, Y.: Taming liquids for rapidly changing targets. In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, SCA ’05, pp. 229–236. ACM, New York, NY, USA (2005). doi: 10.1145/1073368.1073401
  21. 21.
    Shin, S.H., Kim, C.H.: Target-driven liquid animation with interfacial discontinuities. Comput. Animat. Virtual Worlds 18(4–5), 447–453 (2007)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stam, J.: Stable fluids. In: Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, SIGGRAPH ’99, pp. 121–128. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., New York, NY, USA (1999). doi: 10.1145/311535.311548
  23. 23.
    Thürey, N., Keiser, R., Pauly, M., Rüde, U.: Detail-preserving fluid control. In: Proceedings of the 2006 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, SCA ’06, pp. 7–12. Eurographics Association, Aire-la-Ville, Switzerland, Switzerland (2006).
  24. 24.
    Yang, B., Liu, Y., You, L., Jin, X.: A unified smoke control method based on signed distance field. Comput. Graph. 37(7), 775–786 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.cag.2013.05.001.
  25. 25.
    Yngve, G.D., O’Brien, J.F., Hodgins, J.K.: Animating explosions. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2000, pp. 29–36 (2000).

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Program in Visual Information ProcessingKorea UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of Convegence SoftwareHallym UniversityChuncheonKorea

Personalised recommendations