The Visual Computer

, Volume 32, Issue 6–8, pp 891–900 | Cite as

A simulation on grass swaying with dynamic wind force

  • Ruen-Rone LeeEmail author
  • Yi Lo
  • Hung-Kuo Chu
  • Chun-Fa Chang
Original Article


Grass swaying simulation with respect to wind force plays an important role in the outdoor scene design of video games and animations. However, the complex and dynamic interactions between grass and wind largely hinder the existing approaches from generating physically plausible simulation in real-time performance. Therefore, common approaches compromise by either rendering still meadow or simply adopting a procedural method for simulating the grass motion. In this work, we present a simple yet effective grass model that enables the real-time simulation of grass swaying mimicking real-world grass motions under dynamic wind force. We characterize each individual grass using a simple polyline model with four vertices derived from the control knots of a cubic Bezier curve describing the real grass shape. The grass dynamics is modeled by applying a combination of swinging, bending and twisting motions to the polyline model in response to the input wind force. The deformed grass model is then passed to the shader pipeline to synthesize grass blades for the rendering. Experimental results show that our system not only achieves real-time performance in simulation and rendering, but also scales well to large grass field such as a meadow.


Grass swaying Real time Simulation Grid-based fluid dynamics 



We are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their comments, suggestions, and additional references. The project was supported in part by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST-102-2221-E-007-055-MY3 and MOST-103-2221-E-007-065-MY3) and the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA-105-EC-17-A-24-1177), Taiwan.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (mov 73474 KB)

371_2016_1263_MOESM2_ESM.avi (16.6 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (avi 17026 KB)


  1. 1.
    Akagi, Y., Kitajima, K.: A study on the animations of swaying and breaking trees based on a particle-based simulation. J. WSCG 20(1), 21–28 (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bakay, B., Lalonde, P., Heidrich, W.: Real-time animated grass. In: Eurographics 2002. Eurographics (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Belyaev, S., Laevsky, I., Chukanov, V.: Real-time animation, collision and rendering of grassland. In: Proceedings of GraphiCon2011, pp. 1–4 (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bergou, M., Wardetzky, M., Robinson, S., Audoly, B., Grinspun, E.: Discrete elastic rods. ACM Trans. Graph. (TOG) 27(3), 63:1–63:12 (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bertails, F.: Linear time super-helices. Comput. Graph. Forum 28(2), 417–426 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bridson, R.: Fluid Simulation for Computer Graphics. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fan, Z., Li, H., Hillesland, K., Sheng, B.: Simulation and rendering for millions of grass blades. In: Proceedings of the 19th symposium on interactive 3D graphics and games, pp. 55–60. ACM (2015)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Foster, N., Metaxas, D.: Realistic animation of liquids. Graph. Models Image Process. 58(5), 471–483 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gingold, R.A., Monaghan, J.J.: Smoothed particle hydrodynamics: theory and application to non-spherical stars. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 181(3), 375–389 (1977)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harlow, F.H., Welch, J.E., et al.: Numerical calculation of time-dependent viscous incompressible flow of fluid with free surface. Phys. Fluids 8(12), 2182–2189 (1965)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Harris, M.: Fast fluid dynamics simulation on the gpu. GPU Gems 1, 637–665 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jens, O., Salama, C.R., Kolb, A.: Gpu-based responsive grass. J. WSCG 17(1–3), 65–72 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lu, S., Guo, X., Zhao, C., Li, C.: Physical model for interactive deformation of 3d plant. Int. J. Virtual Real. 10(2), 33–38 (2011)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lucy, L.B.: A numerical approach to the testing of the fission hypothesis. Astron. J. 82, 1013–1024 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pelzer, K.: Rendering countless blades of waving grass. GPU Gems 1, 107–121 (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Perbet, F., Cani, M.P.: Animating prairies in real-time. In: Proceedings of the 2001 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics, pp. 103–110. ACM (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pirk, S., Niese, T., Hädrich, T., Benes, B., Deussen, O.: Windy trees: computing stress response for developmental tree models. ACM Trans. Graph. 33(6), 204:1–204:11 (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pirk, S., Stava, O., Kratt, J., Massih Said, M.A., Neubert, B., Mech, R., Benes, B., Deussen, O.: Plastic trees: interactive self-adapting botanical tree models. ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 50:1–50:10 (2012)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Qiu, H., Chen, L., Chen, J.X., Liu, Y.: Dynamic simulation of grass field swaying in wind. J. Softw. 7(2), 431–439 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Qiu, H., Chen, L.T., Qiu, G.P.: A novel approach to simulate the interaction between grass and dynamic objects. WSEAS Trans. Comput. 12(7), 277–287 (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reeves, W.T., Blau, R.: Approximate and probabilistic algorithms for shading and rendering structured particle systems. ACM Siggraph Comput. Graph. 19(3), 313–322 (1985)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Selino, A., Jones, M.: Large and small eddies matter: animating trees in wind using coarse fluid simulation and synthetic turbulence. Comput. Graph. Forum 32(1), 75–84 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stam, J.: Stochastic dynamics: Simulating the effects of turbulence on flexible structures. Comput. Graph. Forum 16(s3), C159–C164 (1997)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stam, J.: Stable fluids. In: Proceedings of the 26th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, pp. 121–128. ACM Press (1999)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stam, J.: Real-time fluid dynamics for games. In: Proceedings of the game developer conference, vol. 4, pp. 76–92. UBM Tech (2003)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang, C., Wang, Z., Zhou, Q., Song, C., Guan, Y., Peng, Q.: Dynamic modeling and rendering of grass wagging in wind. Comput. Anim. Virtual Worlds 16(3–4), 377–389 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ward, K., Bertails, F., Kim, T.Y., Marschner, S.R., Cani, M.P., Lin, M.C.: A survey on hair modeling: styling, simulation, and rendering. IEEE Trans. Visualiz. Comput. Graph. 13(2), 213–234 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wilkinson, J.H.: The algebraic eigenvalue problem, vol. 87. Clarendon Press, Oxford (1965)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhao, X., Li, F., Zhan, S.: Real-time animating and rendering of large scale grass scenery on gpu. In: International conference on information technology and computer science, ITCS 2009, vol. 1, pp. 601–604. IEEE (2009)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhao, Y., Barbič, J.: Interactive authoring of simulation-ready plants. ACM Trans. Graph. (TOG) 32(4), 84:1–84:12 (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruen-Rone Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yi Lo
    • 2
  • Hung-Kuo Chu
    • 3
  • Chun-Fa Chang
    • 4
  1. 1.Industrial Technology Research InstituteHsinchuTaiwan
  2. 2.MediaTek Inc.HsinchuTaiwan
  3. 3.National Tsing-Hua UniversityHsinchuTaiwan
  4. 4.National Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations