The Visual Computer

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 445–463 | Cite as

Image-based styling

  • Dieter HildebrandtEmail author
Original Article


The same data can be visualized using various visual styles that each is suitable for specific requirements, e.g., 3D geodata visualized using photorealistic, cartographic, or illustrative styles. In contrast to feature-based styling, image-based styling performed in image space at image resolution allows decoupling styling from image generation and output-sensitive, expressive styling. However, leveraging image-based styling is still impeded. No previous approach allows specifying image-based styling expressively with an extensive inventory of composable operators, while providing styling functionality in a service-oriented, interoperable manner. In this article, we present an interactive system for specifying and providing the functionality of image-based styling. As key characteristics, it separates concerns of styling from image generation and facilitates specifying styling as algebraic compositions of high-level operators using a unified 3D model representation. We propose a generalized visualization model, an image-based styling algebra, two declarative DSLs, an operator taxonomy, an operational model, and a standards-based service interface. The approach facilitates expressive specifications of image-based styling for design, description, and analysis and leveraging the functionality of image-based styling in a service-oriented, interoperable, reusable, and composable manner.


Styling Image-based representation  Visualization model Domain-specific language  Taxonomy Optimization  Interoperability  Service-oriented computing 



Application programming interface


Bidirectional reflectance distribution function


Coordinate reference system


Color transfer lookup table


Color transfer lookup table


Color transfer lookup table


Data flow graph


Domain-specific language


Feature identification


Focus and context


Feature-based styling


Geometric buffer


OpenGL Shading Language


Image-based representation


Image-based styling algebra


Image-based Symbology Encoding


Image-based Styling Language


Image-based Styled Layer Descriptor


International Organization for Standardization


Image-based styling


Image-based view


Level of abstraction


Logical styling graph


Lookup table




Open Geospatial Consortium


Object identification




Physical styling graph


Symbology Encoding


Symbology Encoding 3D


Styled Layer Descriptor


Styled Layer Descriptor 3D


Service-oriented architecture


Service-oriented architectures, standards, and image-based representations


World Wide Web Consortium


Web Feature Service


Web Image-based Styling Service


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hasso-Plattner-InstituteUniversity of PotsdamPotsdamGermany

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