The Visual Computer

, Volume 29, Issue 6–8, pp 473–480 | Cite as

Lit-Sphere extension for artistic rendering

  • Hideki Todo
  • Ken Anjyo
  • Shun’ichi Yokoyama
Original Article


The Lit-Sphere model proposed by Sloan et al. (Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2001, pp. 143–150, 2001) is a method for emulating expressive artistic shading styles for 3D scenes. Assuming that artistic shading styles are described by view space normals, this model produces a variety of stylized shading scenes beyond traditional 3D lighting control. However, it is limited to the static lighting case: the shading effect is only dependent on the camera view. In addition, it cannot support small-scale brush stroke styles. In this paper, we propose a scheme to extend the Lit-Sphere model based on light space normals rather than view space normals. Owing to the light space representation, our shading model addresses the issues of the original Lit-Sphere approach, and allows artists to use a light source to obtain dynamic diffuse and specular shading. Then the shading appearance can be refined using stylization effects including highlight shape control, sub-lighting effects, and brush stroke styles. Our algorithms are easy to implement on GPU, so that our system allows interactive shading design.


Non-photorealistic rendering Stylized rendering Lit-Sphere 



We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. We are also grateful to Marc Salvati, Yosuke Katsura, Tatsuo Yotsukura and Ayumi Kimura for their valuable discussions, suggestions, and assistance for this work. Additional thanks go to AIM@SHAPE Shape Repository, Keenan’s 3D Model Repository for the 3D models used in this paper. This work was supported in part by the Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST project.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.OLM Digital, Inc./JST CRESTTokyoJapan
  2. 2.University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  3. 3.IMIKyushu University/JST CRESTFukuokaJapan

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