Ting tools: interactive and procedural modeling of Chinese ting


We propose an interactive and procedural approach to developing a tool for modeling Chinese tings, a featured Chinese architecture. The procedural approach models a detailed 3D Chinese ting model efficiently. The movement of control-point with user guidance and interaction-clue provides a user-friendly GUI for intuitively constructing variant tings flexibly. Also, the summarized scale proportional relationships between parameters used in ting architecture makes the user’s interaction simple yet powerful. The user studies and the experimental results show that nonprofessional users can intuitively construct a variant of complex, novel Chinese tings within minutes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 199

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20


  1. 1.

    Bai, L.J., Wang, J.F.: The Structure of the Official Building in Ching Dynasty (2000). Publisher of Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China

  2. 2.

    Bokeloh, M., Wand, M., Seidel, H.P.: A connection between partial symmetry and inverse procedural modeling. ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 104 (2010). doi:10.1145/1833349.1778841

  3. 3.

    Chen, Y., Xu, Y., Guo, B., Shum, H.Y.: Modeling and rendering of realistic feathers. ACM Trans. Graph. 21(3), 630–636 (2002). doi:10.1145/566654.566628

  4. 4.

    Chen, X., Kang, S., Xu, Y.Q., Dorsey, J., Shum, H.Y.: Sketching reality: realistic interpretation of architectural designs. ACM Trans. Graph. 27(2), 11 (2008). doi:10.1145/1356682.1356684

  5. 5.

    Dowing, F., Flemming, U.: The bungalows of Buffalo. Environ. Plan. B 8, 269–293 (1981). doi:10.1068/b080269

  6. 6.

    Duarte, J.: Malagueira grammar—towards a tool for customizing Alvaro Siza’s mass houses at Malagueira. Ph.D. thesis, MIT School of Architecture and Planning (2002)

  7. 7.

    Flemming, U.: More than the sum of its parts: the grammar of Queen Anne houses. Environ. Plan. B 14, 323–350 (1987). doi:10.1068/b140323

  8. 8.

    Ganster, B., Klein, R.: An integrated framework for procedural modeling. In: Sbert, M. (ed.) Spring Conference on Computer Graphics 2007 (SCCG 2007), pp. 150–157. Comenius University, Bratislava (2007). doi:

  9. 9.

    Hou, Y.B.: The Aesthetics of Chinese Architecture (Chung-Kuo Chien-Chu Mei Shue) (1997). Publisher of science technology of Heilungkiang, Harbin, China

  10. 10.

    Jiang, N., Tan, P., Cheong, L.F.: Symmetric architecture modeling with a single image. In: SIGGRAPH Asia, pp. 1–8 (2009). doi:10.1145/1661412.1618459

  11. 11.

    Koning, H., Eizenberg, J.: The language of the prairie: Frank Lloyd wrights prairie houses. Environ. Plan. B 8(3), 295–323 (1981). doi:10.1068/b080295

  12. 12.

    Liang, S.C., Heh, Z.Y.: The Example of the Construction and Computation of the Architecture in Ching Dynasty (Ch’ing Tai Ying-Tsao Tse Li) (1985). Wen Hai Foundation for Culture and Education, Taipei, Taiwan

  13. 13.

    Liu, D.K.: The Construction Methods of Ancient Chinese Building (Chung-kuo Ku Chien-chu Wa-shih Yin-fah) (1993). Publisher of construction industry of China Beijing, China

  14. 14.

    Ma, B.C.: The Construction Technique of Ancient Chinese Wooden Architectures (Chung-Kuo Ku Chien-Chu Mou-Tso Ying-Tso Khi-sue). Bo-Yuan Publishing, Taipei (1982)

  15. 15.

    Müller, P., Vereenooghe, T., Wonka, P., Paap, I., Van Gool, L.: Procedural 3d reconstruction of Puuc building in Xkipché. In: Eurographics Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (VAST), pp. 139–146 (2006). doi:

  16. 16.

    Müller, P., Wonka, P., Haegler, S., Ulmer, A., Van Gool, L.: Procedural modeling of buildings. ACM Trans. Graph. 25(3), 614–623 (2006). doi:10.1145/1141911.1141931

  17. 17.

    Olsena, L., Samavatia, F.F., Sousaa, M.C., Jorge, J.A.: Sketch-based modeling: a survey. Comput. Graph. 33(1), 85–103 (2009). doi:10.1016/j.cag.2008.09.013

  18. 18.

    Parish, Y., Müller, P.: Procedural modeling of cities. In: The 28th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 301–308 (2001). doi:10.1145/383259.383292

  19. 19.

    Prusinkiewicz, P., Lindenmayer, A.: The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants. Springer, Berlin (1990)

  20. 20.

    Prusinkiewicz, P., James, M., Měch, R.: Synthetic topiary. In: SIGGRAPH’94, pp. 351–358 (1994). doi:

  21. 21.

    Prusinkiewicz, P., Hammel, M., Měch, R., Hanan, J.: The artificial life of plants. In: SIGGRAPH’95 Course Notes, vol. 7, pp. 1–38 (1995). doi:

  22. 22.

    Prusinkiewicz, P., Hammel, H., Hanan, J., Měch, R.: Visual models of plant development. In: Handbook of Formal Languages, vol. 3 (1997). doi:

  23. 23.

    Stiny, G.: Pictorial and Formal Aspects of Shape and Shape Grammars. Birkhauser, Basel (1976)

  24. 24.

    Stiny, G., Mitchell, W.J.: The Palladian grammar. Environ. Plan. B 5(1), 5–18 (1978). doi:10.1068/b050005

  25. 25.

    Wonka, P., Wimmer, M., Sillion, F., Ribarsky, W.: Instant architecture. ACM Trans. Graph. 22(3), 669–677 (2003). doi:10.1145/882262.882324

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Wen-Kai Tai.

Electronic Supplementary Material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

(AVI 26.2 MB)

(AVI 26.2 MB)



Table 4 The details of the control points
Table 5 The parameter relationships and their default size of the ting components
Table 6 The formulae of the position control points

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Huang, C., Tai, W. Ting tools: interactive and procedural modeling of Chinese ting. Vis Comput 29, 1303–1318 (2013).

Download citation


  • Procedural modeling
  • Interactive modeling
  • Chinese architecture
  • Ting
  • User guidance