The Visual Computer

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 161–171 | Cite as

Evaluation of a geometry-based knee joint compared to a planar knee joint

  • Anders SandholmEmail author
  • Cédric Schwartz
  • Nicolas Pronost
  • Mark de Zee
  • Michael Voigt
  • Daniel Thalmann
Original Article


Today neuromuscular simulations are used in several fields, such as diagnostics and planing of surgery, to get a deeper understanding of the musculoskeletal system. During the last year, new models and datasets have been presented which can provide us with more in-depth simulations and results. The same kind of development has occurred in the field of studying the human knee joint using complex three dimensional finite element models and simulations. In the field of musculoskeletal simulations, no such knee joints can be used. Instead the most common knee joint description is an idealized knee joint with limited accuracy or a planar knee joint which only describes the knee motion in a plane. In this paper, a new knee joint based on both equations and geometry is introduced and compared to a common clinical planar knee joint. The two kinematical models are analyzed using a gait motion, and are evaluated using the muscle activation and joint reaction forces which are compared to in-vivo measured forces. We show that we are able to predict the lateral, anterior and longitudinal moments, and that we are able to predict better knee and hip joint reaction forces.


Knee joint Inverse kinematics and dynamics Joint reaction Computed muscular control OrthoLoad Validation Musculoskeletal model 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anders Sandholm
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cédric Schwartz
    • 2
  • Nicolas Pronost
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mark de Zee
    • 2
  • Michael Voigt
    • 2
  • Daniel Thalmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Virtual Reality Lab.École Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Center for Sensory-Motor InteractionAalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark
  3. 3.Games and Virtual WorldsUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

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