The Visual Computer

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 1183–1199 | Cite as

Natural steering behaviors for virtual pedestrians

  • Renato SilveiraEmail author
  • Fábio Dapper
  • Edson Prestes
  • Luciana Nedel
Original Article


The animation of humanoids in real-time applications is yet a challenge if the problem involves attaining a precise location in a virtual world (path-planning), moving realistically according to its own personality, intentions and mood (motion planning). In this paper we propose a formally complete and low-cost solution based upon boundary value problems (BVP) to control steering behaviors of characters in dynamic environments. We use a potential field formalism that allows synthetic actors to move negotiating space, avoiding collisions, and attaining goals, while producing very individual paths. The individuality of each character can be set by changing its inner field parameters leading to a broad range of possible behaviors without jeopardizing its performance. To illustrate the technique potentialities, some results exploring situations as steering behavior in corridors with collision avoidance and competition for a goal, and searching for objects in unknown environments are presented and discussed. A proposal to automatically change the size of the field of view of each agent, producing different behaviors is also a contribution of this paper. Some comments about performance are also made to help the reader to evaluate the potential of the method.

Humanoid simulation Path planning Steering behavior Harmonic functions Boundary value problems 


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Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Renato Silveira
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fábio Dapper
    • 1
  • Edson Prestes
    • 1
  • Luciana Nedel
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of InformaticsFederal University of Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrasil

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