Advertisement

The Visual Computer

, 25:1037 | Cite as

Creation and control of rain in virtual environments

  • Anna Puig-CentellesEmail author
  • Oscar Ripolles
  • Miguel Chover
Original Article

Abstract

Realistic outdoor scenarios often include rain and other atmospheric phenomena, which are difficult to simulate in real time. In the field of real-time applications, a number of solutions have been proposed which offer realistic but costly rain systems. Our proposal consists in developing a solution to facilitate the creation and control of rain scenes and to improve on previously used methods while offering a realistic appearance of rain. Firstly, we create and define the areas in which it is raining. Secondly, we perform a suitable management of the particle systems inside them. We include multiresolution techniques in order to adapt the number of particles, their location and their size according to the view conditions. Furthermore, in this work the physical properties of rain are analyzed and its features are incorporated into the final approach that we propose. The presented method is completely integrated in the GPU. We offer a solution which is fast, simple, efficient and easily integrated into existing virtual-reality environments.

Keywords

Rain Real-time rendering Particle system Level-of-detail GPU 

Supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material

References

  1. 1.
    Best, A.: The size distribution of raindrops. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1950) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Feng, Z.X., Tang, M., Dong, J., Chou, S.C.: Real-time rain simulation. In: CSCWD 2005. LNCS, vol. 3865, pp. 626–635. Springer, Berlin (2006) Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Garg, K., Nayar, S.K.: Detection and removal of rain from videos. In: IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 01, pp. 528–535 (2004) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Garg, K., Nayar, S.K.: Photorealistic rendering of rain streaks. ACM Trans. Graph. 25(3), 996–1002 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gundersen, O.E., Tangvald, L.: Level of detail for physically based fire. In: Theory and Practice of Computer Graphics, pp. 213–220 (2007) Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hallenbeck, C.: Summer types of rainfall in upper pecos valley. Mon. Weather Rev. 209–216 (1917) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Iwasaki, K., Dobashi, Y., Yoshimoto, F., Nishita, T.: Gpu-based rendering of point-sampled water surfaces. Vis. Comput. 24(2), 77–84 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kaneda, K., Ikeda, S., Yamashita, H.: Animation of water droplets moving down a surface. J. Vis. Comput. Animat. 10(1), 15–26 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kelkar, V.N.: Size of raindrops. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Sect. A 22, 394–399 (1945) Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kusamoto, K., Tadamura, K., Tabuchi, Y.: A method for rendering realistic rainfall animation with motion of view. IPSJ SIG Not. 2001(106), 21–26 (2001) Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Luebke, D., Reddy, M., Cohen, J., Varshney, A., Watson, B., Huebner, R.: Level of Detail for 3D Graphics. Morgan-Kaufmann, San Mateo (2003) Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marshall, J.S., Palmer, W.M.: The distribution of raindrops with size. J. Meteorol. (1948) Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    McComber, P.: Sensitivity of selected freezing rain models to meteorological data. In: Proc. of the 57th Annual Eastern Snow Conference (2000) Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    O’Brien, D., Fisher, S., Lin, M.: Automatic simplification of particle system dynamics. In: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Conference on Computer Animation, pp. 210–257 (2001) Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Puppo, E., Scopigno, R.: Simplification, LOD and multiresolution—principles and applications. In: Eurographics ’97 Tutorial Notes (1997) Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rasmussen, R.M.: A review of theoretical and observational studies in cloud and precipitation physics. Rev. Geophys. Suppl. 33 (1995) Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ross, O.N.: Optical remote sensing of rainfall micro-structures. Tech. rep., Freien Universität Berlin. Diplomarbeit thesis (2000) Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rousseau, P., Jolivet, V., Ghazanfarpour, D.: Realistic real-time rain rendering. Comput. Graph. 30(4), 507–518 (2006). Special issue on Natural Phenomena Simulation CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stanik, S., Werman, M.: Simulation of rain in videos. Int. J. Comput. Vis. Texture 2003, 95–100 (2003) Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stefano Soatto Gianfranco Doretto, Y.N.W.: Dynamic textures. In: International Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 439–446 (2001) Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Straube, J., Burnett, E.F.P.: Simplified prediction of driving rain on buildings. In: Proceedings of International Physics Conference, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, pp. 375–382 (2000) Google Scholar
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
    Tatarchuk, N.: Artist-directable real-time rain rendering in city environments. In: SIGGRAPH ’06: ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Courses, pp. 23–64 (2006) Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang, H., Mucha, P.J., Turk, G.: Water drops on surfaces. ACM Trans. Graph. 24(3), 921–929 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang, L., Lin, Z., Fang, T., Yang, X., Yu, X., Kang, S.B.: Real-time rendering of realistic rain. In: SIGGRAPH ’06: ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Sketches, p. 156 (2006) Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang, N., Wade, B.: Rendering falling rain and snow. In: SIGGRAPH ’04: ACM SIGGRAPH 2004 Sketches, p. 14. ACM, New York (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Puig-Centelles
    • 1
    Email author
  • Oscar Ripolles
    • 1
  • Miguel Chover
    • 1
  1. 1.Universitat Jaume ICastellonSpain

Personalised recommendations