The Visual Computer

, Volume 21, Issue 8–10, pp 559–568 | Cite as

Capturing and rendering geometry details for BTF-mapped surfaces

  • Jiaping Wang
  • Xin Tong
  • John Snyder
  • Yanyun Chen
  • Baining Guo
  • Heung-Yeung Shum
original article


Bidirectional texture functions, or BTFs, accurately model reflectance variation at a fine (meso-) scale as a function of lighting and viewing direction. BTFs also capture view-dependent visibility variation, also called masking or parallax, but only within surface contours. Mesostructure detail is neglected at silhouettes, so BTF-mapped objects retain the coarse shape of the underlying model.

We augment BTF rendering to obtain approximate mesoscale silhouettes. Our new representation, the 4D mesostructure distance function (MDF), tabulates the displacement from a reference frame where a ray first intersects the mesoscale geometry beneath as a function of ray direction and ray position along that reference plane. Given an MDF, the mesostructure silhouette can be rendered with a per-pixel depth peeling process on graphics hardware, while shading and local parallax are handled by the BTF. Our approach allows real-time rendering, handles complex, non-height-field mesostructure, requires that no additional geometry be sent to the rasterizer other than the mesh triangles, is more compact than textured visibility representations used previously, and, for the first time, can be easily measured from physical samples. We also adapt the algorithm to capture detailed shadows cast both by and onto BTF-mapped surfaces. We demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithm on a variety of BTF data, including real data acquired using our BTF–MDF measurement system.


Bidirectional texture functions Reflectance and shading models Rendering Shadow algorithms Texture mapping 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Blinn, J.F.: Simulation of wrinkled surfaces. In: Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH ’78 Proceedings), 12(3), 286–292 (1978)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bouguet, J.Y., Perona, P.: 3d photography on your desk. In: IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV98), pp. 43–50 (1998)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cook, R.L.: Shade trees. In: Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH ’84 Proceedings), 18(3), 223–231 (1984)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Curless, B., Levoy, M.: Better optical triangulation through spacetime analysis. In: IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV95), pp. 987–994 (1995)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dana, K.J.: Brdf/btf measurement device. In: Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2, 460–466 (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dana, K.J., van Ginneken, B., Nayar, S.K., Koenderink, J.J.: Reflectance and texture of real-world surfaces. ACM Trans. Graph. 18(1), 1–34 (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Diefenbach, P.J.: Pipeline rendering: interaction and realism through hardware-based multi-pass rendering. Ph.D. thesis, Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, PA 19104 US (1996)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Furukawa, R., Kawasaki, H., Ikeuchi, K., Sakauchi, M.: Appearance based object modeling using texture database: acquisition, compression and rendering. In: Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, pp. 257–266 (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Han, J.Y., Perlin, K.: Measuring bidirectional texture reflectance with a kaleidoscope. ACM Trans. Graph. 22(3), 741–748 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heidrich, W., Daubert, K., Kautz, J., Seidel, H.P.: Illuminating micro geometry based on precomputed visibility. In: Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000), pp. 455–464 (2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hirche, J., Ehlert, A., Guthe, S., Doggett, M.: Hardware accelerated per-pixel displacement mapping. In: GI ’04: Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Graphics Interface, pp. 153–158. Canadian Human-Computer Communications Society, School of Computer Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kaneko, T., Takahei, T., Inami, M., Kawakami, N., Yanagida, Y., Maeda, T., Tachi, S.: Detailed shape representation with parallax mapping. In: ICAT2001(11th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Tele-Existence), pp. 205–208 (2001)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kautz, J., McCool, M.D.: Interactive rendering with arbitrary BRDFs using separable approximations. In: Lischinski, D., Larson, G.W. (eds.) Rendering Techniques ’99, Eurographics, pp. 247–260. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Koenderink, J.J., Doorn, A.J.V.: Illuminance texture due to surface mesostructure. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13(3), 452–463 (1996)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu, X., Hu, Y., Zhang, J., Tong, X., Guo, B., Shum, H.Y.: Synthesis and rendering of bidirectional texture functions on arbitrary surfaces. IEEE Trans. Visual. Comput. Graph. 10(3), 278–289 (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu, X., Yu, Y., Shum, H.Y.: Synthesizing bidirectional texture functions for real-world surfaces. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH, pp. 97–106 (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Malzbender, T., Gelb, D., Wolters, H.: Polynomial texture maps. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH, pp. 519–528 (2001)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mammen, A.: Transparency and antialiasing algorithms implemented with the virtual pixel maps technique. IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 9(4), 43–55 (1989)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Max, N.: Horizon mapping: shadows for bumped mapped surfaces. Visual Comput. 4(2), 109–117 (1988)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mueller, G., Meseth, J., Klein, R.: Compression and real-time rendering of measured BTFs using local PCA. In: Proceedings of Vision, Modeling and Visualisation (2003)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Policarpo, F., Oliveira, M.M., Comba, J.L.D.: Real-time relief mapping on arbitrary polygonal surfaces. In: ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games (I3D 2005) (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rushmeier, H., Balmelli, L., Bernardini, F.: Horizon map capture. In: Proceedings of Eurographics (2001)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sattler, M., Sarlette, R., Klein, R.: Efficient and realistic visualization of cloth. In: Eurographics Symposium on Rendering, pp. 167–178 (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sloan, P.P., Cohen, M.F.: Interactive horizon mapping. In: Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, pp. 281–286 (2000)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sloan, P.P., Liu, X., Shum, H.Y., Snyder, J.: Bi-scale radiance transfer. ACM Trans. Graph. 22(3), 370–375 (2003)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Suykens, F., vom Berge, K., Lagae, A., Dutré, P.: Interactive rendering with bidirectional texture functions. In: Proceedings of Eurographics (2003)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tong, X., Zhang, J., Liu, L., Wang, X., Guo, B., Shum, H.Y.: Synthesis of bidirectional texture functions on arbitrary surfaces. ACM Trans. Graph. 21(3), 665–672 (2002)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vasilescu, M.A.O., Terzopoulos, D.: TensorTextures: multilinear image-based rendering. ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 336–342 (2004)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang, L., Wang, X., Tong, X., Lin, S., Hu, S., Guo, B., Shum, H.Y.: View-dependent displacement mapping. ACM Trans. Graph. 22(3), 334–339 (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang, X., Tong, X., Lin, S., Hu, S., Guo, B., Shum, H.Y.: Generalized displacement maps. In: Eurographics Symposium on Rendering (2004)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yamauchi, Y., Sekine, M., Yanagawa, S.: Bidirectional texture mapping for realistic cloth rendering. In: SIGGRAPH 2003 Sketches and Applications (2003)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhang, Z.: Flexible camera calibration by viewing a plane from unknown orientations. In: IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV99), pp. 666–673 (1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiaping Wang
    • 1
  • Xin Tong
    • 2
  • John Snyder
    • 3
  • Yanyun Chen
    • 2
  • Baining Guo
    • 2
  • Heung-Yeung Shum
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of ScienceGraduated School of Chinese Academy of ScienceP.R. China
  2. 2.Microsoft Research AsiaP.R. China
  3. 3.Microsoft ResearchUSA

Personalised recommendations