The Visual Computer

, Volume 20, Issue 10, pp 613–623 | Cite as

A hybrid method for real-time animation of trees swaying in wind fields

  • Shin Ota
  • Machiko Tamura
  • Tadahiro Fujimoto
  • Kazunobu Muraoka
  • Norishige Chiba
original article

Abstract

Trees are one of the most important elements of natural landscapes. Therefore, in computer graphics, there is a great demand for methods to realize the natural representation of trees in virtual landscapes in various fields such as the entertainment industry or environmental assessment in construction. Many studies have been made on techniques in which the shapes of trees are modeled but only a few studies have been reported on methods to incorporate the shapes with motions in a wind field. Most of these studies use physical simulation techniques based on the equations of motion to generate the branch motions and cannot realize the motions of individual leaves. In this paper, we propose a method to create the natural motions of individual leaves and branches swaying in a wind field. The proposed method uses a hybrid approach combining a stochastic method and a simulation method. The stochastic method is based on 1/fβ noise, which is observed in various natural phenomena, and provides natural motion to leaves and branches. In addition, a simple simulation method based on the spring model is applied to branches to enhance the reality of their motions. This method enables the real-time creation of the leaf and branch motions. Diverse motions according to tree species and shapes and wind conditions can be easily realized by controlling the parameters.

Keywords

Tree Motion Wind 1/fβ noise Real-time animation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aono M, Kunii TL (1984) Botanical tree image generation. IEEE CG&A 4(5):10–34Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chiba N, Kohno M, Satoh Y, Muraoka K, Saitoh N (1993) Image generation method for swaying branches by wind. J Inst Image Electron Eng Japan 22(5):475–483, in JapaneseGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ebert DS (ed) (1994) Texturing and modeling: a procedural approach. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Giacomo TD, Capo S, Faure F (2001) An interactive forest. Eurographics Workshop on Computer Animation and Simulation, pp 65–74Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kanayama C, Masuyama S (1997) Animation of botanical tree swaying. Trans Inst Electron Inf Commun Eng J80-D-II(7):1843–1851, in JapaneseGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mech R, Prusinkiewicz P (1996) Visual models of plants interacting with their environment. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’96, pp 397–410Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Musha T (1994) Idea of motions – revealing the mystery of 1/f motions. NHK Shuppan, in JapaneseGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Peitgen HO, Saupe D (1988) The science of fractal image. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Perlin K (1985) An image synthesizer. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’85, pp 287–296Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Reffye P, Edelin C, Francon J, Jaeger M, Puech C (1988) Plant models faithful to botanical structure and development. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’88, pp 151–158Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sakaguchi T, Ohya J (1999) Modeling and animation of botanical trees for interactive virtual environments. Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST99), pp 139–146Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shinya M, Fournier A (1992) Stochastic motion – motion under the influence of wind. EUROGRAPHICS ’92, pp C-119–C-128Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stam J (1997) Stochastic dynamics: simulating the effects of turbulence on flexible structures. EUROGRAPHICS ’97, pp 159–164Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shin Ota
    • 1
  • Machiko Tamura
    • 1
  • Tadahiro Fujimoto
    • 2
  • Kazunobu Muraoka
    • 3
  • Norishige Chiba
    • 2
  1. 1.Iwate Software CenterJapan
  2. 2.Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Faculty of EngineeringIwate UniversityJapan
  3. 3.Department of Communications EngineeringTohoku Institute of TechnologyJapan

Personalised recommendations