Advertisement

Geo-Marine Letters

, Volume 39, Issue 5, pp 417–425 | Cite as

Sedimentary characteristics of coral mud in the South China Sea during the reclamation process

  • Yang ShenEmail author
  • Zhaoyan Feng
  • Wencheng Qi
  • Yinghao Ma
  • Hanlong Liu
Original
  • 41 Downloads

Abstract

Coral mud is a form of calcareous ooze composed of fine-grained coral debris distributed as interlayers due to particle sorting during the formation of reclamation reefs in the South China Sea. To analyze the effect of coral mud on the stability of reef foundations formed by dredger fill, in this paper, the effects of initial concentrations, initial settlement heights, and salinity levels on the sedimentary characteristics of coral mud are discussed based on laboratory simulation tests. Comparative tests of marine sedimentary soil with similar particle compositions and of terrestrial silty clay with similar plastic indexes were carried out, and the sedimentation velocity characteristics of coral mud were identified at the microscopic level. The experimental results show that reducing initial concentrations and initial settlement heights are conducive to the coral mud filling process and that a medium salt content has no significant effect. The sedimentation rate of coral mud is roughly 3–7 times that of common soil, and the time spent in the isokinetic sedimentation stage is only 1/3 that of common soil. Microscopic studies show that the settling velocity of clay in water is proportional to the sphericity of flocs. According to our experimental results, the relationship between the sedimentation velocity and initial concentrations of coral mud is obtained and can be used to guide the design of similar calcareous soil projects across the globe and of dredger filling projects in particular.

Keywords

South China Sea coral mud Turbid surface Settling velocity Micro morphology Sphericity of flocs 

Notes

Funding information

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 51979087.

This work was supported by the 111 Project of Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China under Grant B13024.

References

  1. Agrawal YC, Pottsmith HC (2000) Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport. Mar Geol 168:89–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allain C, Cloitre M, Wafra M (1995) Aggregation and sedimentation in colloidal suspensions. Phys Rev Lett 74:1478–1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Been K, Sills GC (1981) Self-weight consolidation of soft soils: an experimental and theoretical study. Geotechnique 31(4):519–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen ZH, Guo N (2019) New progress in mechanics and engineering application of unsaturated soil and special soil. Geotech Mech 40(1):8–61Google Scholar
  5. Cui H (2007) Study on the basic characteristics of Estuarine Cohesive Sediment. Dissertation, School of Architectural Engineering, Tianjin University, TianjinGoogle Scholar
  6. Fei SJ (1992) Group settlement of sediment—calculation of settlement velocity of non-uniform sediment under two typical conditions. Sediment Res 3:11–19Google Scholar
  7. Felice RD (2007) Liquid suspensions of single and binary component solid particles—an overview. China Particuol 5(5):312–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gao X (2004) Study on the law of high turbidity water in Yellow River. Dissertation, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  9. Goh ATC, Zhang WG, Wong KS (2019) Deterministic and reliability analysis of basal heave stability for excavation in spatial variable soils. Comput Geotech 108:152–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Guo SJ, Zhang FH, You B, Yang LG (2011) Experimental study on analysis of settling velocity characteristics of mud turbid surface. Yellow River 33(7):48–51Google Scholar
  11. Imai G (1979) Development of a new consolidation test procedure using seepage force. Soils Found 19(3):45–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Imai G (1980) Settlement behavior of clay suspension. Soils Found 20(2):70–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Imai G (1981) Experimental studies on sedimentation mechanism and sediment formation of clay materials. Soils Found 21(7):14Google Scholar
  14. Ismail MA, Joer HA, Randolph MF (2000) Sample preparation technique for artificially cemented soils. Geotech Test J 23(2):171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jiang X (2003) Process simulation on MATLAB platform. Comput Simul 20(6):68–70Google Scholar
  16. Liu CQ, Wang R (1998) Preliminary study on physical and mechanical properties of calcareous sand. Geotech Mech 19(1):32–37Google Scholar
  17. Liu Y, Xiao SF, Wang Q (2004) Experimental study on indoor simulation of filling soil. Rock Soil Mech 25(4):518–528Google Scholar
  18. Merckelbach LM (2000) Consolidation and strength evolution of soft mud layers. Dissertation, Delft University of Technology, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  19. Mikkelsen OA, Pejrup M (2000) In situ particle size spectra and density of particle aggregates in a dredging plume. Mar Geol 170:443–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mikkelsen OA, Pejrup M (2001) The use of a LISST-100 laser particle sizer for in-situ estimates of floc size, density and settling velocity. Geo-Mar Lett 20:187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Qian N (1989) Flow movement of high sediment concentration. Tsinghua University Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  22. Richardson JF, Zaki WN (1954) Sedimentation and fluidization: Part I. Instit Chem Eng 32:19Google Scholar
  23. Shahid A (2011) Large strain settling behavior of polymer-amended laterite slurries. Int J Geomech 11(2):104–112Google Scholar
  24. Shen Y, Zhu YH, Ge DD, Shen X (2016) Effects of initial concentration on flocculation size and settling velocity of marine hydraulic fill clay. Thalassas Int J Marine Sci 32(2):117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wadell H (1932) Volume, shape and roundness of rock particles. J Geol 40:443–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang XZ, Wang X, Hu MJ, Zhu CQ, Meng QS, Wang R (2017) Permeability characteristics of calcareous silt interlayer in artificial island foundation. Geotech Mech 11:54–62Google Scholar
  27. Wang ZY, Wang L, Zhang WG (2019) A random angular bend algorithm for two-dimensional discrete modelling of granular materials. Materials 12:2169.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132169 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Xia ZH, Song GP (1983) Settlement characteristics of the combination of discrete particles and flocs. Papers of the Second International Symposium on River Sediment, Nanjing, pp 253–264Google Scholar
  29. Xiong XZ (2002) Study on flocculating settling of fine cohesive sediment. Dissertation, Department of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  30. Xu XY, Chong CL (1998) Study on dynamic characteristics of frozen soil and determination of its parameters. J Geotech Eng 20(5):77–81Google Scholar
  31. Yang TS, Zhang ZH (1999) Study on fractal model of sediment particle arrangement structure. J Appl Basic Eng Sci 2(3):152–156Google Scholar
  32. Yang TS, Xiong XZ, Zhan XL, Yang MQ (2002) Calculation of sliding layer thickness of particle surface in cohesive sediment suspension. J Water Res 5:20–25Google Scholar
  33. Yang TS, Xiong XZ, Zhan XL, Yang MQ (2003) Overview of research on flocculation of fine cohesive sediment. Hydro-Science and Engineering 2:65–77Google Scholar
  34. Yuan Z, Yu KF, Wang YH, Meng QS, Wang R (2016) Research progress on engineering geological characteristics of coral reef. Trop Geogr 36(1):87–93Google Scholar
  35. Zhan ZY (1996) Particle settlement characteristics of particles. Sediment Res 31(2):50–55Google Scholar
  36. Zhang DR, Liang ZY (1994) Experimental study on the effect of non-uniform fine sediment particle size on flocculation. Water Resour Water Transp Sci Res 6:12–17Google Scholar
  37. Zhang WG, Zhang RH, Han L, Goh ATC (2018) Engineering properties of Bukit Timah Granitic residual soils in Singapore DTL2 braced excavations. Undergr Space.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.undsp.2018.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhu CQ, Zhou B, Liu HF (2014) Study on strength and microstructure of natural cemented calcareous soil. Geotech Mech 35(6):1656–1663Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yang Shen
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Zhaoyan Feng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wencheng Qi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yinghao Ma
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hanlong Liu
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Geomechanics and Embankment Engineering of Ministry of EducationHohai UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Jiangsu Research Center for Geotechnical Engineering TechnologyHohai UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.School of Civil EngineeringChongqing UniversityChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations