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Geo-Marine Letters

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 63–81 | Cite as

A non-deltaic clinoform wedge fed by multiple sources off São Sebastião Island, southeastern Brazilian Shelf

  • Ivo Vieira
  • Francisco José Lobo
  • Isabel Montoya-Montes
  • Eduardo Siegle
  • Jorge Luiz Passos
  • Michel Michaelovitch De Mahiques
Original
  • 606 Downloads

Abstract

São Sebastião Island (SSI) marks the latitudinal boundary between two sedimentological and geochemical provinces in the São Paulo Bight, an arc-shaped sector of the southeastern Brazilian Shelf. The island is separated from the continent by the narrow, deep São Sebastião Channel (SSC). A relatively thick sediment wedge—the São Sebastião Wedge (SSW)—has been formed offshore SSI. This study explores the possible genetic and evolutionary mechanisms of the wedge, bearing in mind that clinoform wedges can form at considerable distances from major fluvial sources. For that, a marine geological database has been interpreted comprising high-resolution seismic data, a surficial sediment map and several sediment cores, from which radiocarbon dates were obtained and sedimentation rates deduced. A wave model was also applied to obtain the dominant wave directions. The SSW is a wedge-shaped deposit, and its internal structure presents three seismic units. The two lowest are wedge shaped and arranged in a backstepping pattern. The most recent unit is mostly aggradational and can be divided into three seismic subunits. Sedimentological data show that at least the most recent unit is composed of a mixture of sands and silts. Modeled wave conditions indicate a major influence from southerly waves that are able to remobilize shelf sediments and to create a bypass sediment zone until the foreset of the deposit is reached at the water depths where the SSW is found. Taken together, these data suggest that the SSW formed through contributions from different sediment sources, and should be regarded as an intermediate case of a non-deltaic clinoform wedge. Sand transport in the area involves wind-driven currents passing through the SSC and sediment remobilization by energetic southerly waves. Fine-grained sediment is derived mostly from the joint contributions of many minor catchments located north of the island, and this sediment is later transported southwestward by the prevailing surface currents. The morphological obstacle presented by the island leads to current veering and subsequent sediment deposition. The internal architecture of the wedge indicates that its deposition was probably initiated during the last part of the postglacial transgression, but its present-day morphology is mostly a product of episodic highstand sedimentation that began under conditions of gently falling sea levels during the last 5 ka, after the Holocene glacio-eustatic maximum.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This is a contribution to projects 2014/08295-2 and 2015/06884-3, both funded by the “Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)”, and to project 459623/2014-1 funded by the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico (CNPq). The authors acknowledge the University of São Paulo for providing the seismic and sediment core data via the NAP-GEOSEDEX Program, and thank the crew and researchers who participated in the RV Alpha Delphini and Alpha Crucis cruises. M.M. de Mahiques acknowledges CNPq (grant 303132/2014-0) and FAPESP (grant 2010/06147-5). F.J. Lobo acknowledges the Brazilian program “Ciência sem Fronteiras” funded by the CNPq, enabling him to conduct several research stages as “Pesquisador Visitante Especial” at the Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo, under project number 401041/2014-0. M.M. de Mahiques and E. Siegle are CNPq research fellows. The authors acknowledge IHS Markit for providing the software Kingdom, under the Educational Grant Program. The authors also would like to acknowledge the contribution provided by the reviewers R. Quartau and D. Casalbore, which led to an improved version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest with third parties.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oceanographic Institute of the University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la TierraCSIC-Universidad de GranadaGranadaSpain
  3. 3.Instituto de Oceanografia y Cambio Global (IOCAG)Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran CanariaLas Palmas de Gran CanariaSpain
  4. 4.Institute of Energy and Environment of the University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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