Evidence for Holocene centennial variability in sea ice cover based on IP25 biomarker reconstruction in the southern Kara Sea (Arctic Ocean)
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The Holocene is characterized by the late Holocene cooling trend as well as by internal short-term centennial fluctuations. Because Arctic sea ice acts as a significant component (amplifier) within the climate system, investigating its past long- and short-term variability and controlling processes is beneficial for future climate predictions. This study presents the first biomarker-based (IP25 and PIP25) sea ice reconstruction from the Kara Sea (core BP00-07/7), covering the last 8 ka. These biomarker proxies reflect conspicuous short-term sea ice variability during the last 6.5 ka that is identified unprecedentedly in the source region of Arctic sea ice by means of a direct sea ice indicator. Prominent peaks of extensive sea ice cover occurred at ~3, ~2, ~1.3 and ~0.3 ka. Spectral analysis of the IP25 record revealed ~400- and ~950-year cycles. These periodicities may be related to the Arctic/North Atlantic Oscillation, but probably also to internal climate system fluctuations. This demonstrates that sea ice belongs to a complex system that more likely depends on multiple internal forcing.
We thank all members of the BP00 campaign with the research vessel RV Akademik Boris Petrov as part of the German-Russian research project SIRRO (Siberian River Run-off), funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, for providing the sediment material on which this study relies. Many thanks to the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Transdrift, grant no. 03G0833B) and the Alfred Wegener Institute for funding this study. Thanks to Simon Belt and colleagues (Biogeochemistry Research Centre, University of Plymouth) for providing the internal standard for IP25 analysis. Also acknowledged are constructive comments from M.-S. Seidenkrantz and the editors.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest with third parties.
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