High-resolution IP25-based reconstruction of sea-ice variability in the western North Pacific and Bering Sea during the past 18,000 years
Due to its strong influence on heat and moisture exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, sea ice is an essential component of the global climate system. In the context of its alarming decrease in terms of concentration, thickness and duration, understanding the processes controlling sea-ice variability and reconstructing paleo-sea-ice extent in polar regions have become of great interest for the scientific community. In this study, for the first time, IP25, a recently developed biomarker sea-ice proxy, was used for a high-resolution reconstruction of the sea-ice extent and its variability in the western North Pacific and western Bering Sea during the past 18,000 years. To identify mechanisms controlling the sea-ice variability, IP25 data were associated with published sea-surface temperature as well as diatom and biogenic opal data. The results indicate that a seasonal sea-ice cover existed during cold periods (Heinrich Stadial 1 and Younger Dryas), whereas during warmer intervals (Bølling-Allerød and Holocene) reduced sea ice or ice-free conditions prevailed in the study area. The variability in sea-ice extent seems to be linked to climate anomalies and sea-level changes controlling the oceanographic circulation between the subarctic Pacific and the Bering Sea, especially the Alaskan Stream injection though the Aleutian passes.
KeywordsYounger Dryas Biogenic Opal Holocene Thermal Maximum Kamchatka Current Northern Hemisphere Summer Insolation
We thank two anonymous reviewers and the GML editors for numerous suggestions for improvement of the manuscript. Financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), BIPOMAC Project STE412/25, is gratefully acknowledged. We thank Ralf Tiedemann for supporting this study by providing material recovered in the framework of the KALMAR Project (SO201-2-KALMAR Leg 2), funded by the Federal German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). This publication is a contribution to the Research Programme PACES II, Topic 3 (The earth system from a polar perspective: Data, modelling and synthesis) of the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar und Marine Research (AWI).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest with third parties.
- Belt ST, Cabedo-Sanz P, Smik L, Navarro-Rodriguez A, Berben SMP, Knies J, Husum K (2015) Identification of paleo Arctic winter sea ice limits and the marginal ice zone: optimised biomarker-based reconstructions of late Quaternary Arctic sea ice. Earth Planet Sci Lett 431:127–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brown TA, Belt ST, Philippe B, Mundy CJ, Massé G, Poulin M, Gosselin M (2011) Temporal and vertical variations of lipid biomarkers during a bottom ice diatom bloom in the Canadian Beaufort Sea: further evidence for the use of the IP25 biomarker as a proxy for spring Arctic sea ice. Polar Biol 34:1857–1868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dullo WC, Baranov B, van den Bogaard C (2009) FS Sonne Fahrtbericht/Cruise Report SO201–2. IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Rep. 35, IFM262 GEOMARGoogle Scholar
- Gorbarenko SA, Nürnberg D, Derkachev AN, Astakhov AS, Southon JR, Kaiser A (2002) Magnetostratigraphy and tephrochronology of the Upper Quaternary sediments in the Okhotsk Sea: implication of terrigenous, volcanogenic and biogenic matter supply. Mar Geol 183:107–129. doi: 10.1016/S0025-3227(02)00164-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kim S, Khim BK, Uchida M, Itaki T, Tada R (2011) Millennial-scale paleoceanographic events and implication for the intermediate- water ventilation in the northern slope area of the Bering Sea during the last 71 kyrs. Glob Planet Chang 79:89–98. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lowe JJ, Rasmussen SO, Björck S, Hoek WZ, Steffensen JP, Walker MJC, Yu ZC, the INTIMATE group (2008) Synchronisation of palaeoenvironmental events in the North Atlantic region during the Last Termination: a revised protocol recommended by the INTIMATE group. Quat Sci Rev 27:6–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Max L, Riethdorf J-R, Tiedemann R, Smirnova M, Lembke-Jene L, Fahl K, Nürnberg D, Matul A, Mollenhauer G (2012) Sea surface temperature variability and sea-ice extent in the subarctic northwest Pacific during the past 15,000 years. Paleoceanography 27, PA3213. doi: 10.1029/2012PA002292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rasmussen SO, Andersen KK, Svensson AM, Steffensen JP, Vinther BM, Clausen HB, Siggaard-Andersen M-L, Johnsen SJ, Larsen LB, Dahl-Jensen D, Bigler M, Röthlisberger R, Fischer H, Goto-Azuma K, Hansson ME, Ruth U (2006) A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination. J Geophys Res 111, D06102. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schlung SA, Ravelo AC, Aiello IW, Andreasen DH, Cook MS, Drake M, Dyez KA, Guilderson TP, LaRiviere JP, Stroynowski Z, Takahashi K (2013) Millennial-scale climate change and intermediate water circulation in the Bering Sea from 90 ka: a high-resolution record from IODP Site U1340. Paleoceanography 28:54–67. doi: 10.1029/2012PA002365 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stabeno PJ, Bond NA, Salo SA (2007) On the recent warming of the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Deep-Sea Res 54:2599–2618Google Scholar
- Stein R, Fahl K, Müller J (2012) Proxy reconstruction of Cenozoic Arctic Ocean sea-ice history: from IRD to IP25. Polarforschung 82:37–71Google Scholar
- Wanner H, Beer J, Bütikofer J, Crowley TJ, Cubasch U, Flückiger J, Goosse H, Grosjean M, Joos F, Kaplan JO, Küttel M, Müller SA, Prentice IC, Solomina O, Stocker TF, Tarasov P, Wagner M, Widmann M (2008) Mid- to Late Holocene climate change: an overview. Quat Sci Rev 27:1791–1828CrossRefGoogle Scholar