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Geo-Marine Letters

, Volume 32, Issue 5–6, pp 407–417 | Cite as

Thermal anomalies associated with shallow gas hydrates in the K-2 mud volcano, Lake Baikal

  • Jeffrey Poort
  • Oleg M. Khlystov
  • Lieven Naudts
  • Albert D. Duchkov
  • Hitoshi Shoji
  • Shin’ya Nishio
  • Marc De Batist
  • Akihiro Hachikubo
  • Masato Kida
  • Hirotsugu Minami
  • Andrey Y. Manakov
  • Marina V. Kulikova
  • Alexey A. Krylov
Original

Abstract

Thermal measurements and hydrate mapping in the vicinity of the K-2 mud volcano in Lake Baikal have revealed a particular type of association of thermal anomalies (29–121 mW m–2) near hydrate-forming layers. Detailed coring within K-2 showed that hydrates are restricted to two distinct zones at sub-bottom depths exceeding 70–300 cm. Temperature data from stations with hydrate recovery and degassing features all display low thermal gradients. Otherwise, the thermal gradients within the mud volcano are generally increased. These findings imply a more complicated thermal regime than often assumed for mud volcanoes, with important roles for both fluids and hydrates. The coexistence of neighbouring low and high thermal anomalies is interpreted to result from discharging and recharging fluid activity, rather than hydrate thermodynamics. It is suggested that hydrates play a key role in controlling the fluid circulation pattern at an early stage. At a later stage, the inflow of undersaturated lake water would favour the dissolution of structure I hydrates and the formation of structure II hydrates, the latter having been observed on top of structure I hydrates in the K-2 mud volcano.

Keywords

Thermal Gradient Thermal Anomaly Baikal Basin Lake Floor Core Catcher 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the crews of R/V Vereshchagin and R/V Titov and all cruise participants who have helped us to collect the data on Lake Baikal. We also thank Dr. Francis Lucazeau for kindly providing us his adopted version of the code for topographic corrections on the heat flow data. This work was supported by a bilateral scientific cooperation between the Russian Federation and Flanders, and by the Integration Project SB RAS no. 27. The multibeam mapping survey was conducted in the framework of the RAS Presidium Programme no. 21.8 and the FWO Flanders Project 1.5.198.09. J. Poort was funded by a postdoctoral research assistantship of the Flemish Fund for Scientific Research (FWO-Vlaanderen). Constructive assessments by three anonymous referees are gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey Poort
    • 1
    • 9
  • Oleg M. Khlystov
    • 2
  • Lieven Naudts
    • 1
    • 10
  • Albert D. Duchkov
    • 3
  • Hitoshi Shoji
    • 4
  • Shin’ya Nishio
    • 6
  • Marc De Batist
    • 1
  • Akihiro Hachikubo
    • 4
  • Masato Kida
    • 4
    • 5
  • Hirotsugu Minami
    • 4
  • Andrey Y. Manakov
    • 7
  • Marina V. Kulikova
    • 8
  • Alexey A. Krylov
    • 8
  1. 1.Renard Centre of Marine GeologyGentBelgium
  2. 2.Limnological Institute, SB RASIrkutskRussia
  3. 3.Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, SB RASNovosibirskRussia
  4. 4.Kitami Institute of TechnologyKitamiJapan
  5. 5.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyMethane Hydrate Research CenterToyohira-kuJapan
  6. 6.Shimizu CorporationKoto-kuJapan
  7. 7.Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic ChemistryNovosibirskRussia
  8. 8.I.S. Gramberg All-Russia Research Institute for Geology and Mineral Resources of the World Ocean (VNIIOkeangeologia)St. PetersburgRussia
  9. 9.ISTeP, UMR 7193 UPMC-CNRS, Univ. Paris 06ParisFrance
  10. 10.Management Unit of the North Sea Mathematical Models, RBINSOostendeBelgium

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