Geo-Marine Letters

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 315–323 | Cite as

Co–rich Mn crusts from the Magellan Seamount cluster: the long journey through time

  • Geoffrey P. Glasby
  • Xiangwen Ren
  • Xuefa Shi
  • Irina A. Pulyaeva


The Magellan seamounts began forming as large submarine shield volcanoes south of the equator during the Cretaceous. These volcanoes formed as a cluster on the small Pacific plate in a period when tectonic stress was absent. Thermal subsidence of the seafloor led to sinking of these volcanoes and the formation of guyots as the seamounts crossed the equatorial South Pacific (10–0°S) sequentially and ocean surface temperatures became too high for calcareous organisms to survive. Guyot formation was completed between about 59 and 45 Ma and the guyots became phosphatized at about 39–34 and 27–21 Ma. Ferromanganese crusts began formation as proto-crusts on the seamounts and guyots of the Magellan Seamount cluster towards the end of the Cretaceous up to 55 Ma after the formation of the seamounts themselves. The chemical composition of these crusts evolved over time in a series of steps in response to changes in global climate and ocean circulation. The great thickness of these crusts (up to 15–20 cm) reflects their very long period of growth. The high Co contents of the outer parts of the crusts are a consequence of the increasing deep circulation of the ocean and the resulting deepening of the oxygen minimum zone with time. Growth of the Co-rich Mn crusts in the Magellan Seamount cluster can be considered to be the culmination of a long journey through time.


Eocene Phosphorite Carbonate Platform Ocean Floor Oxygen Minimum Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geoffrey P. Glasby
    • 1
  • Xiangwen Ren
    • 1
  • Xuefa Shi
    • 1
  • Irina A. Pulyaeva
    • 2
  1. 1.Marine Geology DivisionFirst Institute of Oceanography, SOAQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Northern Caucasus Academy of Federal ServicePyatigorskRussia

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