Geo-Marine Letters

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 13–25 | Cite as

Biomarker records, organic carbon accumulation, and river discharge in the Holocene southern Kara Sea (Arctic Ocean)

Original

Abstract

Within the Russian–German research project on “Siberian River Run-off (SIRRO)” dealing with freshwater discharge and its influence on biological, geochemical, and geological processes in the Kara Sea, sedimentological and organic-geochemical investigations were carried out on two well-dated sediment cores from the Yenisei Estuary area. The main goal of this study was to quantify terrigenous organic carbon accumulation based on biomarker and bulk accumulation rate data, and its relationship to Yenisei river discharge and climate change through Holocene times. The biomarker data in both cores clearly indicate the predominance of terrigenous organic matter, reaching 70–100 and 50–80% of total organic carbon within and directly north of the estuary, respectively. During the last ca. 9 cal ka b.p. represented in the studied sediment section, siliciclastic sediment and (terrigenous) organic carbon input was strongly influenced by postglacial sea-level rise and climate-related changes in river discharge. The mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum is documented by maximum river discharge between 8.2 and 7.3 cal ka b.p. During the last 2,000 years, river discharge probably decreased, and accumulation of both terrigenous and marine organic carbon increased due to enhanced coagulation of fine-grained material.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was performed within the joint German–Russian multidisciplinary research project on “Siberian River Run-off (SIRRO).” Comments by the two reviewers Phil Meyers and Matthias Zabel are much appreciated. Financial support by the German Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF) is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Aagaard K, Carmack EC (1989) The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation. J Geophys Res 94(C10):14485–14498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackman RG, Tocher CS, McLachlan J (1968) Marine phytoplankter fatty acids. J Fish Res Board Can 25:1603–1620Google Scholar
  3. Andreev AA, Klimanov VA (2000) Quantitative Holocene climatic reconstruction from Arctic Russia. J Paleolimnol 24:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andreev AA, Siegert C, Klimanov VA, Derevyagin AYu, Shilova GN, Melles M (2002) Late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation and climate on Taymyr Lowland, Northern Siberia. Quat Res 57:138–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews JT, Helgadottir G, Geirsdottir A, Jennings AE (2001) Multicentury-scale records of carbonate (hydrographic?) variability on the northern Iceland margin over the last 5000 years. Quat Res 56:199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauch HA, Kassens H, Naidina OD, Kunz-Pirrung M, Thiede J (2001a) Composition and flux of Holocene sediments on the eastern Laptev Sea shelf, Arctic Siberia. Quat Res 55:344–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bauch HA, Mueller-Lupp T, Taldenkova E, Spielhagen RF, Kassens H, Grootes PM, Thiede J, Heinemeier J, Petryashov VV (2001b) Chronology of the Holocene transgression at the North Siberian margin. Global Planet Change 31:125–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brassell SC, Eglinton G, Maxwell JR, Philip RP (1978) Natural background of alkanes in the aquatic environment. In: Hutzinger O, Lelyveld IH, Zoetman BCJ (eds) Aquatic pollutants: transformation and biological effects. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 69–86Google Scholar
  9. Bray EE, Evans ED (1961) Distribution of n-paraffins as a clue to recognition of source beds. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 22:2–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Christie WW (1990) Methylation of fatty acids. Lipid Technol 2:48–49, 79–80Google Scholar
  11. Conte MH, Eglinton G, Madureira LAS (1992) Long-chain alkenones and alkyl alkenoates as palaeotemperature indicators: their production, flux and early sedimentary diagenesis in the Eastern North Atlantic. Org Geochem 19(1/3):287–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Leeuw JW, Rijpstra WIC, Schenck PA, Volkman JK (1983) Free, esterified, and residual bound sterols in Black Sea Unit I sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 47:455–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dittmers K, Niessen F, Stein R (2003) Holocene sediment budget and sedimentary history for the Ob and Yenisei estuaries. In: Stein R, Fahl K, Fütterer DK, Galimov EM, Stepanets OV (eds) Siberian river run-off in the Kara Sea: characterisation, quantification, variability, and environmental significance. Proceedings in Marine Sciences, vol 6. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 457–484Google Scholar
  14. Duplessy JC, Ivanova E, Murdmaa I, Paterne M, Labeyrie L (2001) Holocene paleoceanography of the northern Barents Sea and variations of the northward heat transport by the Atlantic Ocean. Boreas 30:2–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Duzhikov OA, Strunin BM (1992) Geological outline of the Norilisk region. In: Duzhikov OA, Strunin BM (eds) Geology and metallogeny of sulfide deposits, Norilisk region. USSR SEG Spec, Moscow, pp 1–60Google Scholar
  16. Fahl K, Kattner G (1993) Lipid content and fatty acid composition of algal communities in sea-ice and water from Weddell Sea (Antarctica). Polar Biol 13:405–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fahl K, Stein R (1997) Modern organic-carbon-deposition in the Laptev Sea and the adjacent continental slope: surface-water productivity vs. terrigenous input. Org Geochem 26:379–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fahl K, Stein R (1999) Biomarkers as organic-carbon-source and environmental indicators in the Late Quaternary Arctic Ocean: “problems and perspectives”. Mar Chem 63:293–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fahl K, Cremer H, Erlenkeuser H, Hanssen H, Hölemann J, Kassens H, Knickmeier K, Kosobokova K, Kunz-Pirrung M, Lindemann F, Markhaseva E, Lischka S, Petryashov V, Piepenburg D, Schmid M, Spindler M, Stein R, Tuschling K (2001) Sources and pathways of organic carbon in the modern Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean): implications from biological, geochemical and geological data. Polarforschung 69(1999):193–205Google Scholar
  20. Fahl K, Stein R, Gaye-Haake B, Gebhardt C, Kodina LA, Unger D, Ittekkot V (2003) Biomarkers in surface sediments from the Ob and Yenisei estuaries and southern Kara Sea: Evidence for particulate organic carbon sources, pathways, and degradation. In: Stein R, Fahl K, Fütterer DK, Galimov EM, Stepanets OV (eds) Siberian river run-off in the Kara Sea: characterisation, quantification, variability, and environmental significance. Proceedings in Marine Sciences, vol 6. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 329–348Google Scholar
  21. Fairbanks RG (1989) A 17000-year glacio eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial meting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep-ocean circulation. Nature 342:637–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fernandes MB, Sicre MA (2000) The importance of terrestrial organic carbon inputs on Kara Sea shelves as revealed by n-alkanes, OC and δ13C values. Org Geochem 31:363–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gordeev VV, Martin JM, Sidorov IS, Sidorova MV (1996) A reassessment of the Eurasian river input of water, sediment, major elements, and nutrients to the Arctic Ocean. Am J Sci 296:664–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grootes PM, Stuiver M, White JW, Johnson S, Jouzel J (1993) Comparison of oxygen isotope records from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenland ice cores. Nature 366:552–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hollerbach A (1985) Grundlagen der organischen Geochemie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Holmes RM, McClelland JW, Peterson BJ, Shiklomanov AI, Zhulidov AV, Gordeev VV, Bobrovitskaya N (2002) A circumpolar perspective on fluvial sediment flux to the Arctic Ocean. Global Biogeochem Cycles 16/4. DOI 10.1029/2002GB001920
  27. Huang W-Y, Meinschein WG (1976) Sterols as source indicators of organic materials in sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 40(3):323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ittekkot V, Haake B, Bartsch M, Nair RR, Ramaswamy V (1992) Organic carbon removal in the sea: the continental connection. In: Summerhayes CP, Prell WL, Emeis KC (eds) Upwelling systems: evolution since the early Miocene. Geological Society, London, Geol Soc Spec, pp 167–176Google Scholar
  29. Kates K, Volcani BE (1966) Lipid components of diatoms. Biochem Biophys Acta 116:264–278Google Scholar
  30. Kattner G, Gercken G, Eberlein K (1983) Development of lipids during a spring plankton bloom in the Northern North Sea. I. Particulate fatty acids. Mar Chem 14:149–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Knies J, Stein R (1998) New aspects of organic carbon deposition and its paleoceanographic implications along the northern Barents Sea margin during the last 30,000 years. Paleoceanography 13:384–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kraus M, Matthiessen J, Stein R (2003) A high-resolution Holocene marine pollen record from the northern Yenisei Estuary (southeastern Kara Sea) and paleoenvironmental implications. In: Stein R, Fahl K, Fütterer DK, Galimov EM, Stepanets OV (eds) Siberian river run-off in the Kara Sea: characterisation, quantification, variability, and environmental significance. Proceedings in Marine Sciences, vol 6. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 435–456Google Scholar
  33. Krishnamurthy RV, Machavaram M, Baskaran M, Brooks JM, Champs MA (2001) Organic carbon flow in the Ob, Yenisei rivers and Kara Sea of the Arctic Region. Mar Pollut Bull 42:726–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lisitzin AP (1995) The marginal filter of the ocean. Oceanology 34(5):671–682Google Scholar
  35. Mangerud J, Gulliksen S (1975) Apparent radiocarbon ages of recent marine shells from Norway, Spitsbergen, and Arctic Canada. Quat Res 5:273–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Meade RH, Bobrovitskaya NN, Babkin VI (2000) Suspended-sediment and fresh-water discharges in the Ob and Yenisei rivers (1960–1988). Int J Earth Sci 89:578–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Meyers PA (1997) Organic geochemical proxies of paleoceanographic, paleolimnologic and paleoclimatic processes. Org Geochem 27(5/6):213–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nesje A, Matthews JA, Dahl SO, Berrisford MS, Andersson C (2001) Holocene glacier fluctuations of Flatebreen and winter-precipitation changes in the Jostedalsbreen region, western Norway, based on glaciolacustrine sediment records. The Holocene 11:267–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nichols PD, Jones GJ, de Leeuw JW, Johns RB (1984) The fatty acid and sterol composition of two marine dinoflagellates. Phytochemistry 23(5):1043–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Parrish CC, Abrajano TA, Budge SM, Helleur RJ, Hudson ED, Pulchan K, Ramos C (2000) Lipid and phenolic biomarkers in marine ecosystems: analysis and applications. In: Wangersky PJ (ed) Marine chemistry. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, vol 5D. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 193–223Google Scholar
  41. Peterson BJ, Holmes RM, McClelland JW, Vorosmarty CJ, Lammers RB, Shiklomanov AI, Shiklomanov IA, Rahmstorf S (2002) Increasing river discharge to the Arctic Ocean. Science 298:2171–2173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Polyakova YeI, Stein R (2004) Holocene paleoenvironmental implications of diatom and organic carbon records from the Southeastern Kara Sea (Siberian Margin). Quat Res 62:256–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Prahl FG, Carpenter R (1984) Hydrocarbons in Washington coastal sediments. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci 18:703–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Prahl FG, Muehlhausen LA (1989) Lipid biomarkers as geochemical tools for paleoceanographic study. In: Berger W, Smetacek V, Wefer G (eds) Productivity of the ocean: past and present. Life Sci Res Rep 44:271–290 (Wiley, New York)Google Scholar
  45. Prahl FG, Ertel JR, Goni MA, Sparrow MA, Eversmeyer B (1994) Terrestrial organic-carbon contributions to sediments on the Washington margin. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58(14):3035–3048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rachold V, Eicken H, Gordeev VV, Grigoriev MN, Hubberten H-W, Lisitzin AP, Shevchenko VP, Schirmeister L (2004) Modern terrigenous organic carbon input to the Arctic Ocean. In: Stein R, Macdonald RW (eds) The Arctic Ocean organic carbon cycle: present and past. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 33–56Google Scholar
  47. Simstich J, Stanovoy V, Bauch D, Erlenkeuser H, Spielhagen RF (2004) Holocene variability of bottom water hydrography on the Kara Sea shelf (Siberia) depicted in multiple single-valve analyses of stable isotopes in ostracods. Mar Geol 206:147–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stein R, Fahl K (2004) The Kara Sea: distribution, sources, variability and burial of organic carbon. In: Stein R, Macdonald RW (eds) The Arctic Ocean organic carbon cycle: present and past. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 237–266Google Scholar
  49. Stein R, Stepanets OV (eds) (2000) Scientific cruise report of the Joint Russian–German Kara-Sea Expedition of RV “Akademik Boris Petrov” in 1999. AWI, Bremerhaven, Rep Polar Res 360Google Scholar
  50. Stein R, Stepanets OV (eds) (2001) The German–Russian Project on Siberian River Run-off (SIRRO): scientific cruise report of the Kara Sea Expedition “SIRRO 2000” of RV “Akademik Boris Petrov” and first results. AWI, Bremerhaven, Rep Polar Mar Res 393Google Scholar
  51. Stein R, Fahl K, Dittmers K, Niessen F, Stepanets OV (2003a) Holocene siliciclastic and organic carbon fluxes in the Ob and Yenisei estuaries and the adjacent inner Kara Sea: quantification, variability, and paleoenvironmental implications. In: Stein R, Fahl K, Fütterer DK, Galimov EM, Stepanets OV (eds) Siberian river run-off in the Kara Sea: characterisation, quantification, variability, and environmental significance. Proceedings in Marine Sciences, vol 6. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 401–434Google Scholar
  52. Stein R, Fahl K, Fütterer DK, Galimov EM, Stepanets OV (eds) (2003b) Siberian river run-off in the Kara Sea: characterisation, quantification, variability, and environmental significance. Proceedings in Marine Sciences, vol 6. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  53. Stein R, Dittfsmers K, Fahl K, Kraus M, Matthiessen J, Niessen F, Pirrung M, Polyakova Ye, Schoster F, Steinke T, Fütterer DK (2004) Arctic (palaeo) river discharge and environmental change: evidence from Holocene Kara Sea sedimentary records. Quat Sci Rev 23:1485–1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stuiver M, Reimer PJ, Bard E, Beck JW, Burr GS, Hughen KA, Kromer B, McCormic G, van der Plicht J, Spurk M (1998) INTCAL 98 radiocarbon age calibration, 24000-0 cal BP. Radiocarbon 40:1041–1083Google Scholar
  55. Thompson R, Oldfield F (1986) Environmental magnetism. Allen and Unwin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  56. Velichko AA, Dolukhanov PM, Rutter NW, Catto NR (eds) (1997) Quaternary of northern Eurasia: late Pleistocene and Holocene landscapes, stratigraphy and environments. Quat Int 41/42Google Scholar
  57. Volkman JK (1986) A review of sterol markers for marine and terrigenous organic matter. Org Geochem 9(2):83–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Volkman JK, Barrett SM, Dunstan GA, Jeffrey SW (1993) Geochemical significance of the occurrence of dinosterol and other 4-methyl sterols in a marine diatom. Org Geochem 20:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vorobyeva GA (1994) Paleoclimates around Lake Baikal in Pleistocene and the Holocene. Baikal as a Nature Laboratory for Global Change, vol 2. Lisna, Irkutsk, pp 54–55Google Scholar
  60. Yunker MB, Macdonald RW, Veltkamp DJ, Cretney WJ (1995) Terrestrial and marine biomarkers in a seasonally ice-covered Arctic estuary—integration of multivariate and biomarker approaches. Mar Chem 49:1–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine ResearchBremerhavenGermany

Personalised recommendations