Retracted Article: Analysis of critical ricochet angle using two space discretization methods
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Ricochet of a tungsten long-rod projectile from oblique steel plates with a finite thickness was investigated numerically using two explicit finite element methods. These two methods are Lagrange and smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH). Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated for various impact velocities and strengths of the target plates in Lagrange and SPH methods. It was predicted that in every two methods, critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocities and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. The experimental results are discussed and compared with results predicted by the simulations and existing two-dimensional analytical model Through Investigation of the angles in which projectile only ricochets, both SPH and Lagrange methods represent approximate alike results. But in the cases that projectile begins to crack in head region out of high impact angles, the SPH method yields better results. One other advantage of the SPH against the Lagrange method is that no erosion happens though the method and therefore all the particles caused by impact are clearly seen. This means better satisfaction of the principle of conservation of mass. Therefore the correlation between the numerical results and the available experimental and observed data demonstrates that the SPH approach is an accurate and effective analysis technique for long rod ricochet phenomena in ricochet of tungsten rod with RHA target.