WBCSim: an environment for modeling wood-based composites manufacture

  • J. Shu
  • L. T. WatsonEmail author
  • B. G. Zombori
  • F. A. Kamke
Original Article


This paper describes a computing environment WBCSim that increases the productivity of wood scientists conducting research on wood-based composite materials and manufacturing processes. WBCSim integrates Fortran 90 simulation codes with a Web-based graphical front end, an optimization tool, and various visualization tools. WBCSim serves as an example for the design, construction, and evaluation of small-scale problem solving environments. WBCSim supports six models. A detailed description of the system architecture and a typical scenario of usage are presented, along with optimization and visualization features.


Problem solving environment Computing environment Wood-based composite materials Visualization Optimization 



The authors wish to thank Alex Verstak for the telnet server in WBCSim, and Lauren Keller for TEX assistance. This work was supported in part by a Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University 1997 ASPIRES grant, USDA Grant 97-35504-4697, and DOE contract DE-AC04-95AL97273-91830.


  1. 1.
    Ames AL, Nadeau DR, Moreland JL (1996) VRML 2.0 Sourcebook, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 241–295Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boisvert RF, Rice JR (1985) Solving elliptic problems using Ellpack. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bolton AJ, Humphrey PE (1988) The hot-pressing of dry-formed wood-based composites. Part I. A review of the literature, identifying the primary physical process and the nature of their interaction. Holzforschung 42:403–406Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bolton AJ, Humphrey PE, Kavvouras PK (1989) The hot-pressing of dry-formed wood-based composites. Part III. Predicted vapour pressure and temperature variation with time, compared with experimental data for laboratory boards. Holzforschung 43:265–274Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bolton AJ, Humphrey PE, Kavvouras PK (1989) The hot-pressing of dry-formed wood-based composites. Part IV. Predicted variation of mattress moisture content with time. Holzforschung 43:345–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bolton AJ, Humphrey PE, Kavvouras PK (1989) The hot-pressing of dry-formed wood-based composites. Part VI. The importance of stresses in the pressed mattress and their relevance to the minimization of pressing time, and the variability of board properties. Holzforschung 43:406–410Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bowen ME (1970) Heat Transfer in particleboard during hot pressing. PhD Dissertation, Colorado State University, Fort CollinsGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bramley R, Gannon D, Stuckey T, Villacis J, Akman E, Balasubramanian J, Breg F, Diwan S, Govindaraju M (1998) The linear system analyzer. Technical Report TR-511, Computer Science Department, Indiana University, BloomingtonGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burnett T, Chaput C, Arrighi H, Norris J, Suson DJ (2000) Simulating the Glast satellite with Gismo. IEEE Comput Sci Eng 2:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carvalho LMH, Costa LMH (1998) Modeling and simulation of the hot-pressing process in the production of medium density fiberboard (MDF). Chem Eng Comm 170:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen JX, Fu X (1999) Integrating physics-based computing and visualization: modeling dust behavior. IEEE Comput Sci Eng 1:12–16Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dai C, Steiner PR (1994) Spatial structure of wood composites in relation to processing and performance characteristics. Part III. Modeling the formation of multi-layered random flake mats. Wood Sci Technol 28:229–239Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gallopoulos E, Houstis E, Rice JR (1994) Computer as thinker/doer: problem-solving environments for computational science. IEEE Comput Sci Eng 1:11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goel A, Phanouriou C, Kamke FA, Ribbens CJ, Shaffer CA, Watson LT (1999) WBCSim: a prototype problem solving environment for wood-based composites simulations. Eng Comput 15:198–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goel A, Baker CA, Shaffer CA, Grossman B, Mason WH, Watson LT, Haftka RT (2001) VizCraft: a problem-solving environment for aircraft configuration design. IEEE Comput Sci Eng 3:56–66Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harless TEG, Wagner FG, Short PH, Seale RD, Mitchell PH, Ladd DS (1987) A model to predict the density profile of particleboard. Wood Fiber Sci 19:81–92Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Haselein CR (1998) Numerical simulation of pressing wood-fiber composites. PhD Dissertation, Forest Products Dept., Oregon State University, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Humphrey PE (1982) Physical aspects of wood particleboard manufacture. PhD Dissertation, University of Wales, BangorGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Humphrey PE (1989) The hot-pressing of dry-formed wood-based composites. Part II. A simulation model for heat and moisture transfer, and typical results. Holzforschung 43:199–206Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Isenhour PL, Begole J, Heagy WS, Shaffer CA (1997) Sieve: a Java-based collaborative visualization environment. Late Breaking Hot Topics Proceedings, IEEE Visualization ’97, Phoenix, AZ, pp 13–16Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kamke FA, Wilson JB (1985) Computer simulation of a rotary dryer: retention time. Am Inst Chem Eng J 32(2):263–268Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kamke FA, Wilson JB (1985) Computer simulation of a rotary dryer: heat and mass transfer. Am Inst Chem Eng J 32(2):269–275Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kayihan F, Johnson A (1983) Heat and moisture movement in wood composite materials during the pressing operation—a simplified model. In: Lewis RW, Morgan K, Schrefler BA (eds) Numerical methods in heat transfer, vol 2. Wiley, New York, pp 511–531Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lang ME, Wolcott MP (1995) Modeling the consolidation of wood-strand mat. Mech Cell Mater ASME AMD 209/MD 60:153–176Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lang ME, Wolcott MP (1996) A model for viscoelastic consolidation of wood-strand mats. Part I. Structural characterization of the mat via Monte Carlo Simulation. Wood and Fiber Science 28:100–109Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lang ME, Wolcott MP (1996) A model for viscoelastic consolidation of wood-strand mats. Part II. Static stress-strain behavior of the mat. Wood and Fiber Science 28:369–379Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lu C (1999) Organization of wood elements in partially oriented flakeboard mats. PhD Dissertation. Dept. of Forestry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BCGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Parker SG, Weinstein DM, Johnson CR (1997) The SCIRun computational steering software system. In: Arge E, Bruaset AM, Langtangen HP (eds) Modern software tools in scientific computing. Birkhauser Press, Boston, pp 1–40Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Resnik J, Kamke FA (1998) Modelling the cure of adhesive-wood bonds using high frequency energy. Final Report, U. S. Slovene Joint Board on Scientific and Technological Cooperation. Project 95-AES10. University of Ljubljana, LjubljanaGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shaffer CA, Watson LT, Kafura DG, Ramakrishnan N (2000) Features of problem solving environments for computational science. In: Tentner A (ed) Proc. high performance computing symp. 2000, Soc. for Computer Simulation Internat, San Diego, pp 242–247Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thöemen H (2000) Modeling the physical processes in natural fiber composites during batch and continuous pressing. PhD dissertation. Forest Products Dept., Oregon State University, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vanderplaats Research & Development, Inc. (1995) DOT Users Manual, Version 4.20. Colorado Springs, COGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wolfram S (1996) The mathematica book, 3rd edn. Wolfram Media/Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 148–155zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zombori BG (2001) Modeling the transient effects during the hot-pressing of wood-based composites. PhD Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, BlacksburgGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zombori BG, Kamke FA, Watson LT (2001) Simulation of the mat formation process. Wood Fiber Sci 33:564–580Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Shu
    • 1
  • L. T. Watson
    • 2
    Email author
  • B. G. Zombori
    • 3
  • F. A. Kamke
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Computer Science and MathematicsVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  3. 3.Department of Wood Science and Forest ProductsVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA

Personalised recommendations