Acute hypoxia/reoxygenation affects muscle mitochondrial respiration and redox state as well as swimming endurance in zebrafish
Rapid fluctuations of the oxygen content of both natural and anthropogenic origin are relatively common in freshwater environments. Fish adaptation to these conditions implies tolerance of both low levels of oxygen availability and reoxygenation. Hypoxia tolerance in fish has been widely studied, but the involvement of mitochondria in the response of fish to rapid hypoxia/reoxygenation stress is less known. Zebrafish, a floodplain species, is likely facing significant changes in dissolved oxygen in its natural environment and displays a moderate ability to tolerate hypoxia. In the present study, we report the effects of an acute hypoxia/reoxygenation stress (H/R) protocol on mitochondrial functionality (respiration, complex activities, rate of H2O2 release) and redox state (level of HPs and protein oxidation) of muscle tissue. In parallel, the animal metabolic performance (routine metabolism, nitrogen excretion and swimming performance) was measured. Additionally, the recovery from H/R was tested 20 h after treatment. A significant stimulation by H/R of muscle mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 release was observed, which was only in part counteracted by stimulation of the antioxidant system, resulting in an increased level of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls. In parallel, H/R increased the animal oxygen consumption and urea excretion rate and reduced routine activity. A significant strong reduction of endurance at 80% Ucrit was also observed. Most of the altered parameter did not recover 20 h after reoxygenation. These data indicate a significant alteration of zebrafish muscle mitochondrial state after acute H/R, associated with changes in tissue redox state and locomotor performance.
KeywordsZebrafish Hypoxia/reoxygenation Oxidative stress Endurance Routine oxygen consumption Ammonia excretion Mitochondrial functionality.
AA acknowledges support from the Basic Research Funding of the Biology Department of the Naples University Federico II.
PV conceived and coordinated the study together with CA and helped draft the manuscript. GN and DB attended to the experiment concerning the evaluation of mitochondrial bioenergetic state, oxidative damage and antioxidant status. DE and EU attended to the experimental set up of in vivo experiments, collected the related experimental data and participated in the data analysis. CA proposed the underlying hypothesis of the study, conceived and coordinated the study together with PV, designed the study, and helped draft the manuscript. All authors gave final approval for publication.
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