Journal of Comparative Physiology B

, Volume 184, Issue 6, pp 789–797 | Cite as

Torpor is not the only option: seasonal variations of the thermoneutral zone in a small primate

  • Susanne Kobbe
  • Julia Nowack
  • Kathrin H. Dausmann
Original Paper


The reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) is one of only a few small mammals inhabiting the spiny forest of southwestern Madagascar. In this study we investigated the physiological adjustments which allow these small primates to persist under the challenging climatic conditions of their habitat. To this end we measured energy expenditure (metabolic rate) and body temperature of 24 naturally acclimatized mouse lemurs, kept in outdoor enclosures, during different seasons (summer, winter, and the transition period between the two seasons). Mouse lemurs displayed two main physiological strategies to compensate seasonal and diurnal fluctuations of ambient temperature. On the one hand, individuals entered hypometabolism with decreasing ambient temperature (T a) during the transition period and winter, enabling them to save up to 21 % energy per day (92 % per hour) compared with the normal resting metabolic rate at comparable T a. On the other hand, euthermic mouse lemurs also showed physiological adjustments to seasonality when resting: the lower critical temperature of the thermoneutral zone decreased from summer to winter by 7.5 °C, which allowed mouse lemurs to keep energy demands constant despite colder T as during winter. In addition, the basal metabolic rate was substantially lowered prior to the winter period, which facilitated accumulation of fat reserves. The combination of physiological modifications during euthermia in addition to hypometabolism, which can be individually adjusted according to external parameters and respective body condition, is important as it allows M. griseorufus to cope with the environmental variability of an energetically challenging habitat.


Hypometabolism Malagasy mouse lemurs Metabolic rate (MR) Pronounced seasonality Seasonal body fattening 



This study was carried out under the “Accord de Collaboration” between Madagascar National Parks (MNP), the University of Antananarivo and the University of Hamburg and all procedures comply with the current laws of Madagascar. We acknowledge the authorization and support of this study by the Ministère de l’Environnement des Forêts, MNP and the University of Antananarivo. We thank D. Rakotomalala and J. Rakotomalala (MNP Toliara) for their hospitality and support while working in Tsimanampetsotsa. P. Giertz, J. Hammer and J. Ganzhorn supported this field project in numerous ways. The study was supported by the DFG (Ga 342/14-1, 15-1), BMZ/GTZ, WWF Germany and WWF Madagascar.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanne Kobbe
    • 1
  • Julia Nowack
    • 1
  • Kathrin H. Dausmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Animal Ecology and ConservationUniversity of Hamburg, Biocentre GrindelHamburgGermany

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