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Journal of Comparative Physiology B

, Volume 184, Issue 4, pp 497–512 | Cite as

Physiological responses to short-term fasting among herbivorous, omnivorous, and carnivorous fishes

  • Ryan D. Day
  • Ian R. Tibbetts
  • Stephen M. Secor
Original Paper

Abstract

We explored the integrated role of dietary specialization and feeding periodicity on the response of the gastrointestinal tract of teleosts fishes to short-term (7–10 days) fasting and refeeding. Fasted and fed herbivorous grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), omnivorous channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were compared for digestive organ masses, intestinal morphology, gastrointestinal pH, and the specific activities and total intestinal capacities of the intestinal hydrolases aminopeptidase (APN) and maltase and intestinal nutrient transporters. All three species experience intestinal hypertrophy with feeding as noted by significant increases in enterocyte dimensions. Of the three, only I. punctatus experienced a postprandial increase in intestinal length, and only C. idella experienced significant modulation of intestinal microvillus length. Feeding resulted in acidification of the stomachs of I. punctatus and M. salmoides. Predicted to exhibit a relatively modest set of postprandial responses because of their more frequent feeding habits, C. idella only experienced increases in APN and maltase activity with feeding and no significant regulation of nutrient uptake. Significant regulation of hydrolase activities and nutrient uptake were exhibited by I. punctatus and M. salmoides, with I. punctatus experiencing the most comprehensive set of responses. As predicted by food habits, there was an interspecific gradient in intestinal length and glucose uptake extending from longer intestines and greater glucose uptake for the herbivorous C. idella, intermediate lengths and glucose uptake for the omnivorous I. punctatus, and shorter intestines and reduced glucose uptake for the carnivorous M. salmoides. Among teleosts fishes, short episodes of fasting lead to significant alterations in intestinal form and function that are rapidly restored with feeding.

Keywords

Fasting Intestinal hydrolases Intestinal morphology Intestinal nutrient transport Microvilli pH Refeeding Teleosts Ctenopharyngodon idella Ictalurus punctatus Micropterus salmoides 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Scott Bessler, Miles Cobia, David Hall, and Brytney Snow for their assistance in the undertaking of this study; Simon Blomberg for statistics consultation; and two anonymous reviewers who offered comments that strengthened the manuscript. This study was funded by fellowships and travel awards from the University of Queensland (to RDD) and the National Science Foundation (IOS 0466139 to SMS).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryan D. Day
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ian R. Tibbetts
    • 1
  • Stephen M. Secor
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesThe University of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesThe University of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Marine and Antarctic StudiesUniversity of TasmaniaTaroonaAustralia

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