Advertisement

Journal of Comparative Physiology B

, Volume 182, Issue 4, pp 469–489 | Cite as

The physiology of the honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus, a small marsupial with a suite of highly specialised characters: a review

  • Don Bradshaw
  • Felicity Bradshaw
Review

Abstract

Field and laboratory studies of the iconic nectarivorous and ‘pollenivorous’ honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus, are reviewed with the aim of identifying aspects of its physiology that are as yet poorly understood and needed to implement management strategies for its long-term conservation. Dietary specialisations include the loss of teeth, a modified gut with a high rate of passage, exceptionally low minimum nitrogen requirements, an apparently high basal metabolic rate and a permanently polyuric kidney. In contrast, its reproductive physiology is plesiomorphic, combining aspects such as a post-partum oestrus, embryonic diapause, photoperiodicity and extended maternal care that are usually separate characteristics of other marsupial groups. In common with a number of other marsupials, the honey possum has the potential for trichromatic colour vision and has been the subject of several studies attempting to correlate visual quality with ecological realities. Field physiological studies have established its high rates of nectar and pollen intake needed to maintain energy balance and highlight the need for a constant intake from floral sources. Early allometric studies suggesting that the honey possum’s relatively low reproductive rate may be linked to a diet limited in protein have not been supported and nitrogen intakes in the field exceed by a factor of 10 the animal’s basic requirements for balance. Measurements of rates of protein turnover in field-caught lactating females suggest that they divert nitrogen from the protein pool to milk production by reducing rates of degradation, rather than by increasing rates of synthesis of protein. Although not yet an endangered species, the honey possum’s habitat has been drastically reduced since European occupation of Australia and future-targeted research on the animal’s unique physiology and habitat linkage is needed that can be translated into effective management practices. Only then will its long-term survival be assured.

Keywords

Tarsipes Physiology Reproduction 

Abbreviations

BMR

Basal metabolic rate

SMR

Standard metabolic rate

FMR

Field metabolic rate

Tb min

Minimal body temperature in torpor

kb

Biological elimination rate

DLW

Doubly labelled water method

CCK

Cholecystokinin

BPP

Bovine pancreatic polypeptide

MRT

Mean retention time

SNP

Scott National Park

FRNP

Fitzgerald River National Park

OPR

Offspring production rate

N

Nitrogen

MNR

Maintenance nitrogen requirements

MFN

Metabolic faecal nitrogen

EUN

Endogenous urinary nitrogen excretion

BV

Biological value

MWP

Metabolic water production

TDN

Truly digestible nitrogen intake

PM

Progesterone metabolites (progestagens)

E2

Oestradiol-17β

Curea

Clearance of urea

CIN

Clearance of inulin (=GFR)

Curea/CIN

Clearance ratio of urea

RMT

Relative medullary thickness

RMA

Relative medullary area

JMN

Juxtaglomerular nephrons

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

SWS

Short-wavelength sensitive

MWS

Middle-wavelength sensitive

LWS

Long-wavelength sensitive

UVS

Ultraviolet sensitive

MSP

Microspectrophotometry

VMN

Vomeronasal organ

Notes

Acknowledgments

Our own research on honey possums has been generously supported by grants from the Australian Research Council (ARC), the Australian Institute for Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), The University of Western Australia and “The Friends of the Honey Possum”. Numerous graduate students contributed to both field and laboratory studies that have increased our understanding of honey possums: in particular Jessica Oates and Ernie Stead-Richardson. Helpful comments and suggestions by two reviewers are gratefully acknowledged and our thanks to Ian Hume for proposing the review. Acknowledgement must also be made to the many researchers who have studied this unique marsupial over the past four decades and made this review possible.

References

  1. Aplin KP, Archer M (1987) Recent advances in marsupial systematics with a new syncretic classification. In: Archer M (ed) Possums and opossums: studies in evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Sydney, pp xv–lxxiiGoogle Scholar
  2. Archer M, Kirsch JAW (2006) The evolution and classification of marsupials. In: Armati P, Dickman CR, Hume ID (eds) Marsupials. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arrese C, Archer M, Beazley LD (2002a) Visual capabilities in a crepuscular marsupial, the honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus): a visual approach to ecology. J Zool (Lond) 256:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arrese CA, Hart NS, Thomas N, Beazley LD, Shand J (2002b) Trichromacy in Australian marsupials. Curr Biol 12:657–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arrese C, Oddy AY, Runham PB, Hart NS, Shand J, Hunt DM, Beazley LD (2005) Cone topography and spectral sensitivity in two potentially trichromatic marsupials, the quokka (Setonix brachyurus) and quenda (Isoodon obesulus). Proc Roy Soc B 272:791–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arrese C, Beazley LD, Neumeyer C (2006) Behavioural evidence for marsupial trichomacy. Curr Biol 16:R193–R194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Austad SN, Fischer KE (1991) Mammalian aging, metabolism and ecology—evidence from the bats and marsupials. J Gerontol 46:847–853Google Scholar
  8. Baggett HA (1978) The tongue of Tarsipes. Bull Aust Mamm Soc 5:44Google Scholar
  9. Bakker HR, Bradshaw SD (1983) Renal function in the spectacled Hare Wallaby (Lagorchestes conspicillatus): effects of dehydration and protein deficiency. Aust J Zool 31:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bankir L, de Rouffignac C (1985) Urinary concentrating ability: insights from comparative anatomy. Am J Physiol 249:R643–R666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barboza PS, Hume ID, Nolan JV (1993) Nitrogen metabolism and requirements of nitrogen and energy in wombats (Marsupialia: Vombatidae). Physiol Zool 66:807–828Google Scholar
  12. Barker S (1968) Nitrogen balance and water intake in the Kangaroo Island wallaby, Protemnodon eugenii (Desmarest). Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 46:17–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barret G (1995) Pollen loads of vertebrates in heath vegetation during autumn at Eneabba. West Aust Nat 20:155–158Google Scholar
  14. Beattie AJ (1971) A technique for the study of insect-borne pollen. Pan Pac Entomol 47:82Google Scholar
  15. Berger PJ (1966) Eleven-month ‘embryonic diapause’ in a marsupial. Nature 211:435–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berger PJ, Sharman GB (1969) Progesterone-induced development of dormant blastocysts in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii Desmarest: Marsupialia. J Reprod Fert 20:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beuchat CA (1990) Body size, medullary thickness, and urine concentrating ability in mammals. Am J Physiol 258:R298–R308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bradshaw SD (2003) Vertebrate ecophysiology: an introduction to its principles and applications. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradshaw SD, Bradshaw FJ (1999) Field energetics and the estimation of pollen and nectar intake in the marsupial honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus, in heathland habitats of south-western Australia. J Comp Physiol B 169:569–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bradshaw FJ, Bradshaw SD (2001) Maintenance nitrogen requirement of an obligate nectarivore, the Honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus. J Comp Physiol B 171:59–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bradshaw SD, Bradshaw FJ (2002) Short-term movements and habitat utilisation of the marsupial Honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus. J Zool (Lond) 258:343–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bradshaw SD, Bradshaw FJ (2007) Isotopic measurements of field metabolic rate (FMR) in the marsupial Honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus. J Mammal 88:401–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bradshaw SD, Bradshaw FJ (2009) Measurement of the rate of protein turnover and synthesis in the marsupial Honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus). J Comp Physiol B 179:183–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bradshaw FJ, Bradshaw D (2011) Progesterone and reproduction in marsupials: a review. Gen Comp Endocrinol 170:18–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bradshaw SD, Cohen D, Katsaros A, Tom J, Owen FJ (1987) Determination of 18O by prompt nuclear reaction analysis: application for measurement of microsamples. J App Physiol 63:1296–1302Google Scholar
  26. Bradshaw FJ, Everett L, Bradshaw SD (2000) On the rearing of Honey possums. West Aust Nat 22:281–288Google Scholar
  27. Bradshaw FJ, Stead-Richardson EJ, Reeder AJ, Oates JE, Bradshaw SD (2004) Reproductive activity in captive female Honey possums, Tarsipes rostratus—assessed by faecal steroid analysis. Gen Comp Endocrinol 138:20–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bradshaw SD, Phillips R, Tomlinson S, Holley R, Jennings S, Bradshaw FJ (2007) Ecology of the Honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus, in Scott National Park, Western Australia. Aust Mammal 29:25–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brody S (1945) Bioenergetics and growth. Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Brooker B, Withers PC (1994) Kidney structure and renal indices of dasyurid marsupials. Aust J Zool 42:163–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brooker BM, O’Shea JE, Stewart T (1995) Renal vasculature of two Dasyurid Marsupials, Sminthopsis dolichura and S. crassicaudata. Aust J Zool 43:259–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Brown GD (1968) The nitrogen and energy requirements of the euro (Macropus robustus) and other species of macropod marsupials. Proc Ecol Soc Aust 3:106–112Google Scholar
  33. Brown GD, Main AR (1967) Studies on marsupial nutrition. V. The nitrogen requitrements of the euro, Macropus robustus. Aust J Zool 15:7–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Brownfield MS, Wunder BA (1976) Relative medullary area: a new structural index for estimating urinary concentrating capacity of mammals. Comp Biochem Physiol 55A:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bryant KA (2004) The mating system and reproduction in the Honey possum, Tarsipes rostsratus: a life history and genetic perspective. PhD thesis, Murdoch University, PerthGoogle Scholar
  36. Bryant KA, Spencer PB, Bradley S, Wooller RD (2000) Variation within and between populations of the Honey possum Tarsipes rostratus using both morphological and molecular approaches. Aust Mamm Soc Newsl Nov 2000:23Google Scholar
  37. Carthew SM, Goldingay RL (1997) Non-flying mammals as pollinators. TREE 12:104–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Chester Jones I (1957) The adrenal cortex. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  39. Chilcott MJ, Hume ID (1984) Nitrogen and urea metabolism and nitrogen requirements of the common ringtail possum Pseudocheirus peregrinus fed Eucalyptus andrewsii foliage. Aust J Zool 32:615–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Christensen P, Maisey K, Perry DH (1984) Radiotracking the numbat, Myrmecobius fasciatus, in the perup forest of Western Australia. Aust Wildl Res 11:275–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Collins BG, Newland C (1986) Honeyeater population changes in relation to food availability in the jarrah forest of Western Australia. Aust J Ecol 11:63–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Collins BG, Wooller RD, Richardson KC (1987) Torpor by the honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus (Marsupialia: Tarsipedidae), in response to food shortage and low environmental temperature. Aust Mammal 11:51–57Google Scholar
  43. Cooper CE, Cruz-Neto AP (2009) Metabolic, hygric and ventilatory physiology of a hypermetabolic marsupial, the honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus). J Comp Physiol B 179:773–781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cork SJ (1986) Foliage of Eucalyptus punctata and the maintenance of nitrogen requirements of koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus. Aust J Zool 34:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cowling JA, Arrese C, Davies WL, Beazley LD, Hunt DM (2008) Cone visual pigments in two marsupial species: the fat-tailed dunnart Sminthopsis crassicaudata) and the Honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus). Proc Roy Soc Biol Sci B 275:1491–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Croft DB, Eisenberg JF (2006) Behaviour. In: Armati P, Dickman CR, Hume ID (eds) Marsupials. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 229–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cummins JM, Temple-Smith PD, Renfree MB (1986) Reproduction in the male Honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus: Marsupialia): the epididymis. Am J Anat 177:385–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Daniel JC (2004) Growth of the preimplantation embryo of the northern fur seal and its correlation with changes in uterine protein. Dev Biol 26:316–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Davenport MD, Tiefenbacher S, Lutz CK, Novak MA, Meyer JS (2006) Analysis of endogenous cortisol concentrations in the hair of rhesus macaques. Gen Comp Endocrinol 147:255–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dawson TJ, Hulbert AJ (1969) Standard energy metabolism of marsupials. Nature 221:383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dawson TJ, Hulbert AJ (1970) Standard metabolism, body temperature and surface areas of Australian marsupials. Am J Physiol 218:1233–1238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Denny MJ, Dawson TJ (1977) Kidney structure and function in desert kangaroos. J App Physiol 42:636–642Google Scholar
  53. Dey SK, Lim H, Das SK, Reese J, Paria BC, Daikoku T, Wang H (2004) Molecular cues to implantation. Endocr Rev 25:341–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dickman CR (1985) Effects of photoperiod and endogenous control of reproduction in the marsupial genus Antechinus. J Zool (Lond) 206:509–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Du Toit BA, Smuts DB (1941) The endogenous nitrogen metabolism of pigs with special references to the maintenance requirement of protein. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 16:169–179Google Scholar
  56. Dunlop SD, Ross WM, Beazley LD (1994) The retinal ganglion cell layer and optic nerve in a marsupial, the Honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus). Brain Behav Evol 44:307–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Endler JA (1993) The color of light in forests and its implications. Ecol Monogr 63:1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fisher DO, Owens IPF, Johnson CN (2001) The ecological basis of life history variation in marsupials. Ecology 82:3531–3540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Fleming TH (1971) Artibeus jamaicensis: delayed embryonic development in a neotropical bat. Science 171:401–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Foley WJ, Hume ID (1987) Nitrogen requirements and urea metabolism in two arboreal marsupials, the greater glider (Petaroides volans) and brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), fed Eucalyptus foliage. Physiol Zool 60:103–113Google Scholar
  61. Foley WJ, Hume ID, Taylor R (1980) Protein intake and requirements of the eastern walleroo and the eastern grey kangaroo. Bull Aust Mamm Soc 6:34–35Google Scholar
  62. Foley WJ, Charles-Dominique P, Julien-Laferriere D (2000) Nitrogen requirements of the didelphid marsupial Caluromys philander. J Comp Physiol B 170:345–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Freudenberger D, Nolan J (1993) Protein turnover in two kangaroo sub-species (Macropus robustus robustus and M. r. erubescens) from divergent habitats and the sympatric feral goat (Capra hircus). Comp Biochem Physiol 105A:443–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Garavanta CAM, Wooller RD, Richardson KC (2000) Movement patterns of honey possums, Tarsipes rostratus, in the Fitzgerald River National Park, Western Australia. Wildl Res 27:179–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Geiser F (1994) Hibernation and daily torpor in marsupials: a review. Aust J Zool 42:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Geiser F (2004) Metabolic rate and body temperature reduction during hibernation and daily torpor. Ann Rev Physiol 66:239–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Geiser F, Pavey CR (2007) Basking and torpor in a rock-dwelling marsupial: survival strategies in a resource-poor environment. J Comp Physiol B 177:885–892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Geiser F, Ruf T (1995) Hibernation versus daily torpor in mammals and birds: physiological variables and classification of torpor patterns. Physiol Zool 68:935–966Google Scholar
  69. Geiser F, Hulbert AJ, Nicol SC (eds) (1996) Adaptations to the cold. University of New England Press, ArmidaleGoogle Scholar
  70. Gemmell RT (1988) The oestrous cycle length of the bandicoot, Isoodon macrourus. Aust Wildl Res 15:633–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Glauert L (1928) Notes on the habits of Tarsipes spenserae. J Proc Roy Soc West Aust 15:10Google Scholar
  72. Glauert L (1958) The honey mouse. Aust Mus Mag 12:284–285Google Scholar
  73. Golden MHN, Jackson AA (1981) Assumption and errors in the use of 15N-excretion data to estimate whole body protein turnover. In: Waterlow JC, Stephen JML (eds) Nitrogen metabolism in man. Applied Science Publishers, London, pp 323–324Google Scholar
  74. Goldingay RL (1990) The foraging behaviour of a nectar feeding marsupial, Petaurus australis. Oecologia 85:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Goldstein DL, Bradshaw SD (1998) Renal function in Red wattlebirds in response to varying fluid intake. J Comp Physiol B 168:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Goldstein DL, Newland S (2004) Water balance and kidney function in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva). Comp Biochem Physiol 139A:71–76Google Scholar
  77. Harder JD, Fleming MW (1981) Estradiol and progesterone profiles indicate a lack of endocrine recognition of pregnancy in the opossum. Science 212:1400–1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Harding HR, Carrick FN, Shorey CD (1981) Marsupial phylogeny: new indications from sperm ultrastructure and development in Tarsipes spenserae. Search 12:45–47Google Scholar
  79. Harding HR, Carrick FN, Shorey CD (1984) Sperm ultrastructure and development in the Honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus. In: Smith AP, Hume ID (eds) Possums and gliders. Australian Mammal Society, Sydney, pp 451–461Google Scholar
  80. Harman AM, Coleman LA, Beazley LD (1990) Retinofugal projections in a marsupial, Tarsipes rostratus (honey possum). Brain Behav Evol 36:30–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hartman CG (1923) The estrous cycle in the opossum. Am J Anat 32:353–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hayman DL, Sharp PJ (1982) The chromosomes of Tarsipes spenserae, Gray (Marsupialia). Aust J Zool 30:799–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Heinrich B (1975) Energetics of pollination. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 6:139–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hemmi JM (1999) Dichromatic colour vision in an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby. J Comp Physiol A 185:509–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Heslop-Harrison J (1973) Pollen: development and physiology. Butterworth, LondonGoogle Scholar
  86. Hewitt S, Wheldrake JF, Baudinette RV (1981) Water balance and renal function in the Australian desert rodent Notomys alexis: the effect of diet on water turnover rate, glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow and renal blood flow. Comp Biochem Physiol 68A:405–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hill JP (1910) The early development of the Marsupialia, with special reference to the native cat (Dasyurus viverrinus). Contributions to the embryology of the Marsupialia, IV. Q J Microsc Sci 56:1–134Google Scholar
  88. Hinds LA, Smith MJ (1992) Evidence from plasma progesterone concentrations for male-induced ovulation in the brush-tailed bettong, Bettongia pencillata. J Reprod Fert 95:291–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hopper SD (1980) Bird and mammal pollen vectors in Banksia communites at Cheyne Beach, Western Australia. Aust J Bot 28:61–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hopper SD, Burbidge AA (1982) Feeding behaviour of birds and mammals on flowers of Banksia grandis and Eucalyptus angulosa. In: Armstrong JA, Powell JA, Richards AJ (eds) Pollination and evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, pp 67–75Google Scholar
  91. Hulbert AJ, Dawson TJ (1974) Water metabolism in perameloid marsupials from different environments. Comp Biochem Physiol 47A:617–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hume ID (1977) Maintenance nitrogen requirements of the macropod marsupials Thylogale thetis, red-necked pademelon, and Macropus eugenii, tammar wallaby. Aust J Zool 25:407–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hume ID (1982) Digestive physiology and nutrition of marsupials. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  94. Hume ID (1999) Marsupial nutrition. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  95. Hume ID, Rübsamen K, Engelhardt WV (1980) Nitrogen metabolism and urea kinetics in the rock hyrax (Procavia habessinica). J Comp Physiol B 138:307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hutchinson JCD, Morris S (1936) The digestibility of dietary protein in the ruminant. I. Endogenous nitrogen excretion on a low nitrogen diet in starvation. Biochem J 30:1682–1694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Jacobs GH (1993) The distribution and nature of colour vision among mammals. Biol Rev 68:413–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Jacobs GH (2009) Evolution of colour vision in mammals. Philos Trans R Soc B 364:2957–2967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Johnson SD, Burgoyne PM et al (2011) Mammal pollinators lured by the scent of a parasitic plant. Proc Roy Soc B 278:2303–2310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Karasov WH (1982) Energy assimilation, nitrogen requirement and diet in free living antelope ground squirrels Ammospermophilus leucurus. Physiol Zool 55:378–392Google Scholar
  101. Kavanagh JR, Burk-Herrick A, Westerman M, Springer M (2004) Relationships among Families of Diprotodontia (Marsupialia) and the phylogenetic position of the autapomorphic Honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus). J Mamm Evol 11:207–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kirsch JAW (1968) Prodromus of the comparative serology of Marsupialia. Nature 217:418–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kirsch JAW (1977a) The classification of marsupials. In: Hunsaker D (ed) The biology of marsupials. Academic press, New York, pp 1–50Google Scholar
  104. Kirsch JAW (1977b) The comparative serology of Marsupialia, and a classification of marsupials. Aust J Zool Supp. 52Google Scholar
  105. Knox RB (1979) Pollen and allergy. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  106. Kratzing JE (1982) The anatomy of the rostral nasal cavity and vomeronasal organ in Tarsipes rostratus (Marsupialia: Tarsipedidae). Aust Mammal 5:211–219Google Scholar
  107. Krause WJ, Cutts JH, Leeson CR (1979) Morphological observations on the metanephros in the postnatal opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Anat 129:459–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Krause WJ, Yamada J, Cutts JH (1985) Quantitative distribution of enteroendocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the adult opossum, Didelphis virginiana. J Anat 144:591–605Google Scholar
  109. Krockenberger AK (2006) Lactation. In: Armati P, Dickman CR (eds) Marsupials. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 108–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Landwehr GO, Richardson KC, Wooller RD (1990) Sugar preferences of honey possums, Tarsipes rostratus (Marsupiala: Tarsipedidae) and western pygmy possums, Cercartetus concinnus (Marsupialia: Burramyidae). Aust Mammal 13:5–10Google Scholar
  111. Lentle RG, Potter MA J, Stafford KJ, Springett BP, Haslett S (1998) The temporal characteristics of feeding activity in free-ranging tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii Desmarest). Aust J Zool 46:601–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lopes FL, Desmarais JA, Murphy BD (2004) Embryonic diapause and its regulation. Reproduction 128:669–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lyne AG (1976) Observations on oestrus and the oestrous cycle in the marsupials Isodon macrourus and Perameles nasuta. Aust J Zool 24:513–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lyne AG, Pilton PE, Sharman GB (1959) Oestrous cycle, gestation period and parturition in the marsupial Trichosurus vulpecula. Nature 183:622–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Manatt MW, Garcia PA (1992) Nitrogen balance: concepts and techniques. In: Nissen S (ed) Modern methods in protein nutrition and metabolism. Academic Press, New York, pp 9–66Google Scholar
  116. Mark R (1997) Hugh Tyndale-Biscoe and the developmental neurobiology of vision at the Australian National University. In: Saunders N, Hinds L (eds) Marsupial biology: recent research, new perspectives. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, pp 311–326Google Scholar
  117. McAllan BM, Dickman CR (1986) The role of photoperiod in the timing of reproduction in the dasyurid marsupial Antechinus stuartii (Marsupialia). Oecologia (Berlin) 68:259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. McAllan BM, Geiser F (2006) Photoperiod and the timing of reproduction in Antechinus flavipes (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia). Mamm Biol 71:129–138Google Scholar
  119. McAllan BM, Roberts JR, O’Shea TO (1996) Seasonal changes in the renal morphometry of Antechinus stuartii (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). Aust J Zool 44:337–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. McAllan BM, Roberts JR, O’Shea T (1998a) The effects of cortisol and testosterone on renal function in male Antechinus stuartii (Marsupialia). J Comp Physiol B 168(4):248–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. McAllan BM, Roberts JR, O’Shea T (1998b) Seasonal changes in glomerular filtration rate in Antechinus stuartii (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). J Comp Physiol B 168:41–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. McCracken HE (1986) Observations on the oestrous cycle and gestation period of the Greater bilby, Mactotis lagotis, (Reid) (Marsupialia:Thylacomyidae). Aust Mammal 9:5–16Google Scholar
  123. McDonald IR (1977) Adrenocortical function in marsupials. In: Stonehouse B, Gilmore D (eds) The biology of marsupials. The Macmillan Press Ltd, London, pp 345–377Google Scholar
  124. McNab BK (2005) Uniformity in the basal metabolic rate of marsupials: its causes and consequences. Rev Chil Hist Nat 78:183–298Google Scholar
  125. McNab BK (2008) An analysis of the factors that influence the level and scaling of mammalian BMR. Comp Biochem Physiol 151:5–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Moir RJ, Williams VJ (1950) Ruminal flora studies in sheep. II. The effect of the levels of nitrogen intake upon the total number of free micro-organisms in the rumen. Aust J Sci Res B3:381–392Google Scholar
  127. Murphy BD, Concannon PW, Travis HF, Hansel W (1981) Prolactin: the hypophyseal factor that terminates embryonic diapause in mink. Biol Reprod 25:487–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Nagy KA (1980) CO2 production in animals: analysis of potential errors in the doubly labeled water method. Am J Physiol 238:R466–R473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Nagy KA (1987) Field metabolic rate and food requirement scaling in mammals and birds. Ecol Monogr 57:111–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Nagy KA (1994) Field bioenergetics of mammals: what determines field metabolic rates? Aust J Zool 42:43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Nagy KA, Girad IA, Brown TK (1999) Energetics of free-ranging mammals, reptiles and birds. Ann Rev Nutr 19:247–277Google Scholar
  132. Nagy KA (2005) Field metabolic rate and body size. J Exp Biol 208:1621–1625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Nagy KA, Seymour RS, Lee AK, Braithwaite R (1978) Energy and water budgets in free-living Antechinus stuartii (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). J Mammal 59:60–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Nagy KA, Lee AK, Martin RW, Fleming MR (1988) Field metabolic rate and food requirement of a small dasyurid marsupial, Sminthopsis crassicaudata. Aust J Zool 36:293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Nagy KA, Meienberger C, Bradshaw SD, Wooller RD (1995) Field metabolic rate of a small marsupial mammal, the Honey Possum (Tarsipes rostratus). J Mammal 76:862–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Nilsson MA, Arnason U, Spencer PB, Janke A (2004) Marsupial relationships and a timeline for marsupial radiation in south Gondwana. Gene 340:189–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Oates JE (2005) The reproductive endocrinology of the Honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus) and Western pygmy possum (Cercartetus concinnus). PhD thesis, The University of Western AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  138. Oates JE, Bradshaw FJ, Bradshaw SD (2004) The influence of photoperiod on the reproductive activity of female Honey possums, Tarsipes rostratus (Marsupialia: Tarsipedidae): assessed by faecal progestagens and oestradiol-17β. Gen Comp Endocrinol 139:103–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Oates J, Bradshaw FJ, Bradshaw SD, Stead-Richardson EJ, Philippe D (2007) Reproduction and embryonic diapause in a marsupial: insights from captive female Honey possums, Tarsipes rostratus, (Tarsipedidae). Gen Comp Endocrinol 150:445–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Pak Poy RKF (1957) Electron microscopy of the marsupial renal glomerulus. Aust J Exp Biol 35:448Google Scholar
  141. Picou D, Taylor-Roberts T (1969) The measurement of total protein synthesis and catabolism and nitrogen turnover in infants in different nutritional states and receiving different amounts of dietary protein. Clin Sci 36:283–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Purohit KG (1974) Observations on size and relative medullary thickness in kidneys of some Australian mammals and their ecophysiological appraisal. Zeit Angew Zool 61:495–505Google Scholar
  143. Raven PH, Evert RE, Eichorn SE (1986) Biology of plants. Worth, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  144. Reid IR, McDonald IR (1967) Renal function in the marsupial Trichosurus vulpecula. Comp Biochem Physiol 25:1071–1079Google Scholar
  145. Renfree MB (1978) Embryonic diapause in mammals—a developmental strategy. In: Clutter ME (ed) Dormancy and developmental arrest: experimental analysis in plants and animals. Academic Press Inc., New York, pp 1–46Google Scholar
  146. Renfree MB (1980) Embryonic diapause in the Honey Possum, Tarsipes spencerae. Search 11:81Google Scholar
  147. Renfree MB (1981) Embryonic diapause in marsupials. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 29:67–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Renfree MB, Shaw G (2000) Diapause. Ann Rev Physiol 62:353–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Renfree MB, Russell EM, Wooller RD (1984) Reproduction and life history of the Honey Possum, Tarsipes rostratus. In: Smith AP, Hume ID (eds) Possums and gliders. Australian Mammal Society, Sydney, pp 427–437Google Scholar
  150. Richardson KC, Wooller RD, Collins BG (1986) Adaptations to a diet of nectar and pollen in the marsupial Tarsipes rostratus (Marsupialia: Tarsipedidae). J Zool (Lond) 208:285–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Ridley M (1983) The explanation of organic diversity. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  152. Riek A (2008) Relationship between field metabolic rate and body weight in mammals: effect of the study. J Zool (Lond) 276:187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Robbins CT (1993) Wildlife feeding and nutrition. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  154. Rose RW (1987) Reproductive biology of the Tasmanian bettong (Bettongia gaimardi: Macropodidae). J Zool (Lond) 212:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rose RW (1989) Reproductive biology of rat-kangaroos. In: Grigg G, Jarman P, Hume I (eds) Kangaroos, wallabies and rat kangaroos. Surrey Beatty and Sons, New South Wales, pp 307–315Google Scholar
  156. Rosenberg HI, Richardson KC (1995) Cephalic morphology of the Honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus (Marsupialia: Tarsipedidae): an obligate nectarivore. J Morphol 223:303–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rotenberg D (1928) Notes on the male generative apparatus of Tarsipes spenserae. J Roy Soc WA 15:9–14Google Scholar
  158. Russell EM (1982) Patterns of parental care and parental investment in marsupials. Biol Rev 57:423–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Russell EM (1986) Observations on the behaviour of the Honey Possum, Tarsipes rostratus (Marsupialia: Tarsipedidae) in captivtiy. Aust J Zool 121:1–63Google Scholar
  160. Russell EM, Renfree MB (1989) Tarsipedidae. In: Walton DW, Richardson BJ (eds) Fauna of Australia: mammalia. AGPS, Canberra, pp 769–782Google Scholar
  161. Sadlier RMFS, Tyndale-Biscoe CH (1977) Photoperiod and the termination of embryonic diapause in the marsupial Macropus eugenii. Biol Reprod 16:605–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sandell M (1990) The evolution of seasonal delayed implantation. Quart Rev Biol 65:23–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sanderson KJ, Nelson JE, Crewther DP, Crewther SG, Hammond VE (1987) Retino-geniculate patterns in diprotodont marsupials. Brain Behav Evol 30:22–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Scarlett G, Woolley PA (1980) The Honey Possum Tarsipes spenserae) Marsupialia: Tarsipedidae): a non-seasonal breeder? Aust Mammal 3:97–103Google Scholar
  165. Schmidt-Nielsen B, Schmidt-Nielsen K, Houpt TR, Jarnum SA (1957) Urea excretion in the camel. Am J Physiol 212:341–346Google Scholar
  166. Schultz W (1976) Magen-Darm-Kanal der Monotremen und Marsupialier. Hand Zool 8:1–177Google Scholar
  167. Schwarzenberger F, Palme R, Bamberg E, Mostl E (1997) A review of faecal progesterone metabolite analysis for non-invasive monitoring of reproductive function in mammals. Int J Mamm Biol 62(Suppl II):214–221Google Scholar
  168. Selwood L (1980) A timetable of embryonic development of the dasyurid marsupial Antechinus stuartii (Macleay). Aust J Zool 28:649–668Google Scholar
  169. Sharman GB (1955a) Studies on marsupial reproduction 3. Normal and delayed pregnancy in Setonix brachyurus. Aust J Zool 3:56–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Sharman GB (1955b) Studies on marsupial reproduction. IV. Delayed birth in Protemnodon eugenii. Aust J Zool 3:156–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Shaw G, Rose RW (1979) Delayed gestation in the potoroo Potorous tridactylus (Kerr). Aust J Zool 27:901–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Slaven MR, Richardson KC (1988) Aspects of the form and function of the kidney of the Honey Possum, Tarsipes rostratus. Aust J Zool 36:465–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Smith MJ (1981) Morphological observations on the diapausing blastocyst of some macropodid marsupials. J Reprod Fert 64:83–486Google Scholar
  174. Smith AP (1982) Diet and feeding strategies of the marsupial sugar glider in temperate Australia. J Anim Ecol 51:149–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Smith MJ (1994) Male-induced oestrus and ovulation in female brush-tailed bettongs (Bettongia penicillata) suckling a young in the pouch. Reprod Fertil Dev 6:445–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Smith AP, Green SW (1987) Nitrogen requirements of the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps), an omnivorous marsupial, on a honey-pollen diet. Physiol Zool 60:82–92Google Scholar
  177. Smith AP, Lee AK (1984) The evolution of strategies for survival and reproduction in possums and gliders. In: Smith AP, Hume ID (eds) Possums and gliders. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney, pp 17–33Google Scholar
  178. Smuts DB (1935) The relationship between the basal metabolism and the endogenous nitrogen metabolism, with particular reference to the estimation of the maintenance requirement of protein. J Nutr 9:403–433Google Scholar
  179. Smuts DB, Marais JSC (1938) The endogenous nitrogen excretion of sheep with special reference to the maintenance requirement of protein. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 11:131–139Google Scholar
  180. Speakman JR (1997) Doubly labelled water: theory and practice. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  181. Speakman JR (2005a) Body size, energy metabolism and lifespan. J Exp Biol 208:1717–1730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Speakman JR (2005b) Correlations between physiology and lifespan—two widely ignored problems with comparative studies. Aging Cell 4:167–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Spencer PBS, Bryant KA (2000) Characterization of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers in the marsupial honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus). Mol Ecol 9:492–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Sperber I (1944) Studies on the mammalian kidney. Zool Bidr Upps 22:249–432Google Scholar
  185. Stead-Richardson EJ, Bradshaw SD, Bradshaw FJ, Gaikhorst G (2001) Monitoring the oestrous cycle of the chuditch (Dasyurus geoffroii: Marsupialia, Dasyuridae): non-invasive analysis of faecal oestradiol-17β. Aust J Zool 49:183–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Stead-Richardson EJ, Bradshaw SD, Friend AJ, Fletcher T (2010) Monitoring reproduction in the critically endangered marsupial, Gilbert’s potoroo (Potorous gilbertii): preliminary analysis of faecal oestradiol-17β, cortisol and progestagens. Gen Comp Endocrinol 165:155–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Stein TP (1981) 15N-glycine as a tracer to study protein metabolism in vivo. In: Waterlow JC, Stephen ML (eds) Nitrogen metabolism in man. App Sci (Lond), pp 345–356Google Scholar
  188. Strachan J, Chang L-Y E, Wakefield MJ, Marshall Graves JA, Deeb SS (2004) Cone visual pigments of the Australian marsupials, the stripe-faced and fat-tailed dunnarts: sequence and inferred spectral properties. Vis Neurosc 21:223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Studier EH, Wisniewski SJ, Feldman AT, Dapson RW, Boyd BC, Wilson DE (1983) Kidney structure in neotropical bats. J Mammal 64:445–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Sumner P, Arrese C, Partridge JC (2005) The ecology of visual pigment tuning in an Australian marupial: the Honey possum Tarsipes rostratus. J Exp Biol 208:1803–1815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Turner V (1984) Banksia pollen as a source of protein in the diet of two Australian marsupials Cercartetus nanus and Tarsipes rostratus. Oikos 43:53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Tyndale-Biscoe CH (1979) Hormonal control of embryonic diapause and re-activation in the tammar wallaby. In: Maternal recognition of pregnancy ciba foundation symposium 64 (new series). Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 173–190Google Scholar
  193. Tyndale-Biscoe CH (1986) Embryonic diapuase in a marsupial: roles of the corpus luteum and pituitary in its control. In: Liss AR (ed) Comparative endocrinology: developments and directions, pp 137–155Google Scholar
  194. Tyndale-Biscoe CH, Hawkins J (1977) The corpora lutea of marsupials: aspects of function and control. In: Calaby JH, Tyndale-Biscoe CH (eds) Reproduction and evolution. Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, pp 245–252Google Scholar
  195. van Tets IG, Hulbert AJ (1999) A comparison of the nitrogen requirements of the eastern pygmy possum, Cercartetus nanus, on a pollen and on a mealworm diet. Physiol Biochem Zool 72:127–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Van Tets IG, Whelan RJ (1997) Banksia pollen in the diet of Australian marsupials. Ecography 20:499–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Voigt CC, Kelm DH, Visser GH (2006) Field metabolic rates of phytophagous bats: do pollination strategies of plants make life of nectar-feeders spin faster? J Comp Physiol B 176:213–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Vose HM (1972) Some observations of a Honey Possum (Tasipes spenserae) in captivity. WA Nat 12:61–67Google Scholar
  199. Vose HM (1973) Feeding habits of the Western Australian Honey Possum, Tarsipes spenserae. J Mammal 54:245–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Walker MT, Rose RW (1981) Prenatal development after diapause in the marsupial Macropus rufogriseus. Aust J Zool 29:167–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Ward SJ (1990) Reproduction in the Western Pygmy-possum, Cercartetus concinnus (Marsupialia: Burramyidae), with notes on reproduction of some other small possum species. Aust J Zool 38:423–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Ward SJ, Renfree MB (1988) Reproduction in females of the feathertail glider Acrobates pygmaeus (Marsupialia). J Zool (Lond) 216:225–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Wasser SK, Monfort SL, Southers J, Wildt DE (1994) Excretion rates and metabolites of oestradiol and progesterone in baboon (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) faeces. J Reprod Fert 101:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Waterlow JC, Garlick PJ, Millward DJ (1978) General principles of the body measurement of whole-body protein turnover. In: Waterlow JC, Garlick PJ, Millward DJ (eds) Protein turnover in mammalian tissues and in the whole body. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp 249–255Google Scholar
  205. Weibel ER (1979) Stereological methods: practical methods for biological morphometry. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  206. Weichert CK (1940) The experimental shortening of prolonged pregnancy in the albino rat. Anat Rec 77:31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Wellard GA, Hume ID (1981) Nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen requirements of the brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula (Kerr). Aust J Zool 29:157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Welle S, Nair KS (1990) Relationship of resting metabolic rate to body composition and protein turnover. Am J Physiol 258:E 990–E 998Google Scholar
  209. White RG, Hume ID, Nolan JV (1988) Energy expenditure and protein turnover in three species of wallabies (Marsupialia: Macropodidae). J Comp Physiol B 158:237–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Whitten WK (1958) Endocrine studies on delayed implantation in lactating mice. Role of the pituitary in implantation. J Endocrinol 16:435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Wiens D, Renfree M, Wooller RD (1979) Pollen loads of Honey possums (Tarsipes spenserae) and nonflying mammals in southwestern Australia. Ann Miss Bot Gard 66:830–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Withers PC, Richardson KC, Wooller RD (1990) Metabolic physiology of euthermic and torpid honey possums, Tarsipes rostratus. Aust J Zool 37:685–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Woodd C, Czarny NA, Gunn IMG, Sturrock W (2006) Faecal steroid analysis and urinary cytology of the squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis). Aust J Zool 54:277–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Wooller RD, Richardson KC (1992) Reduction in the number of young during pouch-life in a small marsupial. J Zool (Lond) 226:445–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Wooller RD, Renfree MB, Russell EM, Dunning A, Green SW, Duncan P (1981) Seasonal changes in a population of the nectar feeding marsupial Tarsipes spenserae Marsupialia: Tarsipedidae). J Zool (Lond) 195:267–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Wooller RD, Russell EM, Renfree MB (1983a) A technique for sampling pollen carried by vertebrates. Aust Wildl Res 10:433–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Wooller RD, Russell EM, Renfree MB, Towers PA (1983b) A comparison of seasonal changes in the pollen loads of nectarivorous marsupials and birds. Aust Wildl Res 10:311–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Wooller RD, Russell EM, Renfree MB (1984) Honey possums and their foodplants. In: Smith AP, Hume ID (eds) Possums and gliders. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney, pp 439–443Google Scholar
  219. Wooller RD, Richardson KC, Collins BG (1993) The relationship between nectar supply and the rate of capture of a nectar-dependent small marsupial Tarsipes rostratus. J Zool (Lond) 229:651–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Wooller RD, Richardson KC, Garavanta CAM, Saffer VM, Anthony C, Wooller SJ (1998) The influence of annual rainfall upon capture rates of a nectar-dependent marsupial. Wildl Res 25:165–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Wooller RD, Richardson KC, Bradley GO (1999) Dietary constraints upon reproduction in an obligate pollen- and nectar-feeding marsupial, the Honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus). J Zool (Lond) 248:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Wooller RD, Richardson KC, Garavanta CAM, Saffer VM, KA Bryant (2000) Opportunistic breeding in the polyandrous honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus. Aust J Zool 48:669–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Woolley PA (1990) Reproduction in Sminthopsis macroura (Marsupialia:Dasyuridae) I. The female. Aust J Zool 38:187–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Woolley PA, Scarlett G (1984) Observations on the reproductive anatomy of male Tarsipes rostratus (Marsupilaia: Tarsipedidae). In: Smith AP, Hume ID (eds) Possums and gliders. Australian Mammal Society, Sydney, pp 445–450Google Scholar
  225. Yadav M (1979) The kidney types of some Western Australian macropod marsupials. Mammalia 43:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Yamada J, Richardson KC, Wooller RD (1989) An immunohistochemical study of gastrointestinal endocrine cells in a nectarivorous marsupial, the honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus). J Anat 162:157–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Young VR, Yu Y-M, Krempf M (1991) Protein and amino acid turnover using the stable isotopes 15-N, 13-C and 2-H as probes. In: Whitehead RG, Prentice A (eds) New techniques in nutritional research. Academic Press, New York, pp 17–72Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Animal Biology and Centre for Native Animal Research (CNAR)The University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations