Journal of Comparative Physiology B

, Volume 179, Issue 1, pp 1–56 | Cite as

Specific dynamic action: a review of the postprandial metabolic response

  • Stephen M. SecorEmail author


For more than 200 years, the metabolic response that accompanies meal digestion has been characterized, theorized, and experimentally studied. Historically labeled “specific dynamic action” or “SDA”, this physiological phenomenon represents the energy expended on all activities of the body incidental to the ingestion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of a meal. Specific dynamic action or a component of postprandial metabolism has been quantified for more than 250 invertebrate and vertebrate species. Characteristic among all of these species is a rapid postprandial increase in metabolic rate that upon peaking returns more slowly to prefeeding levels. The average maximum increase in metabolic rate stemming from digestion ranges from a modest 25% for humans to 136% for fishes, and to an impressive 687% for snakes. The type, size, composition, and temperature of the meal, as well as body size, body composition, and several environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and gas concentration) can each significantly impact the magnitude and duration of the SDA response. Meals that are large, intact or possess a tough exoskeleton require more digestive effort and thus generate a larger SDA than small, fragmented, or soft-bodied meals. Differences in the individual effort of preabsorptive (e.g., swallowing, gastric breakdown, and intestinal transport) and postabsorptive (e.g., catabolism and synthesis) events underlie much of the variation in SDA. Specific dynamic action is an integral part of an organism’s energy budget, exemplified by accounting for 19–43% of the daily energy expenditure of free-ranging snakes. There are innumerable opportunities for research in SDA including coverage of unexplored taxa, investigating the underlying sources, determinants, and the central control of postprandial metabolism, and examining the integration of SDA across other physiological systems.


Specific dynamic action Postprandial metabolism Digestive energetics 



I extend my warmest gratitude to Hannah Carey for her invitation to write this review and her continued patience with each revised deadline. To be at a stage to write such a review, I want to thank the following: my mentors, Albert Bennett, Jared Diamond, Victor Hutchinson, and Kenneth Nagy to whom I am indebted to for introducing me to comparative and integrative physiology and their continued support and guidance; my contemporaries, Steven Beaupre, Kimberly Hammond, Timothy O’Connor, Charles C. Peterson, and Tobias Wang with whom I have had many engaging conversations and emails regarding concepts, opinions, and methods in digestive physiology and animal energetics; and my undergraduate and graduate students whom have devoted countless hours to the measure of fasting and postprandial metabolism of amphibians and reptiles in my laboratory. I must give special thanks to Kari Cornelius an undergraduate in my laboratory for spending a summer gathering up the many articles on human SDA. Support during the time I was writing this review was provided by the National Science Foundation (IOS-0466139).


  1. Acheson KJ, Jequier E, Wahren J (1983) Influence of beta-adrenergic blockade on glucose-induced thermogenesis in man. J Clin Invest 72:981–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Acheson KJ, Ravussin E, Wahren J, Jequier E (1984) Thermic effect of glucose in man. Obligatory and facultative thermogenesis. J Clin Invest 74:1572–1580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adam I, Young BA, Nicol AM, Degen AA (1984) Energy cost of eating in cattle given diets of different form. Anim Prod 38:53–56Google Scholar
  4. Aidley DJ (1976) Increase in respiratory rate during feeding in larvae of the armyworm, Spodoptera exempta. Physiol Entomol 1:73–75Google Scholar
  5. Alsop DH, Wood CM (1997) The interactive effects of feeding and exercise on oxygen consumption, swimming performance and protein usage in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Exp Biol 200:2337–2346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson RJ, Lusk G (1917) The interrelation between diet and body condition and the energy production during mechanical work. J Biol Chem 32:421–445Google Scholar
  7. Andersen JB, Wang T (2003) Cardiorespiratory effects of forced activity and digestion in toads. Physiol Biochem Zool 76:459–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Andrade DV, Cruz-Neto A, Abe AS (1997) Meal size and specific dynamic action in the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus (Serpentes:Viperidae). Herpetologica 53:485–493Google Scholar
  9. Andrade DV, De Toledo LP, Abe AS, Wang T (2004) Ventilatory compensation of the alkaline tide during digestion in the snake Boa constrictor. J Exp Biol 207:1379–1385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Andrade DV, Cruz-Neto AP, Abe AS, Wang T (2005) Specific dynamic action in ecothermic vertebrates: a review of the determinants of postprandial metabolic response in fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. In: Stark JM, Wang T (eds) Physiological and ecological adaptations to feeding in vertebrates. Science Publishers, Enfield, pp 305–324Google Scholar
  11. Ansell AD (1973) Changes in oxygen consumption, heart rate and ventilation accompanying starvation in the decapod crustacean Cancer pagurus. Neth J Sea Res 7:455–475Google Scholar
  12. Aoyagi Y, Tasaki I, Okumura J-I, Muramatsu T (1988) Energy cost of whole-body protein synthesis measured in vivo in chicks. Comp Biochem Physiol 91A:765–768Google Scholar
  13. Armstrong JD, Fallon-Cousins PS, Wright PJ (2004) The relationship between specific dynamic action and otolith growth in pike. J Fish Biol 64:739–749Google Scholar
  14. Ashworth A (1969) Metabolic rates during recovery from protein–calorie malnutrition: the need for a new concept of specific dynamic action. Nature 223:407–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Astrup A, Simonsen L, Bulow J, Madsen J, Christensen NJ (1989) Epinephrine mediates facultative carbohydrate-induced thermogenesis in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 257:E340–E345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Atkinson HV, Lusk G (1919) The influence of lactic acid upon metabolism. J Biol Chem 40:79–89Google Scholar
  17. Averett RC (1969) Influence of temperature on energy and material utilization by juvenile coho salmon. Ph.D. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OregonGoogle Scholar
  18. Bandini LG, Schoeller DA, Edwards J, Young VR, Oh SH, Dietz WH (1989) Energy expenditure during carbohydrate overfeeding in obese and nonobese adolescents. Am J Physiol 256:E357–E367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Barott HG, Fritz JC, Pringle EM, Titus HW (1938) Heat production and gaseous metabolism of young male chickens. J Nutr 15:145–167Google Scholar
  20. Battam H, Chappell MA, Buttemer WA (2008) The effect of food temperature on postprandial metabolism in albatrosses. J Exp Biol 211:1093–1101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Baumann EJ, Hunt L (1925) On the relation of thyroid secretion to specific dynamic action. J Biol Chem 64:709–726Google Scholar
  22. Bayne BL, Scullard C (1977) An apparent specific dynamic action in Mytilus edulis L. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 57:371–378Google Scholar
  23. Beamish FWH (1964) Seasonal changes in the standard rate of oxygen consumption of fishes. Can J Zool 42:189–194Google Scholar
  24. Beamish FWH (1974) Apparent specific dynamic action of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides. J Fish Res Bd Can 31:1763–1769Google Scholar
  25. Beamish FWH, MacMahon PD (1988) Apparent heat increment and feeding strategy in walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum. Aquaculture 68:73–82Google Scholar
  26. Beamish FWH, Trippel EA (1990) Heat increment: a static or dynamic dimension in bioenergetic model? Trans Am Fish Soc 119:649–661Google Scholar
  27. Beaupre SJ (2005) Ratio representation of specific dynamic action (mass-specific SDA and SDA coefficient) do not standardize for body mass or meal size. Physiol Biochem Zool 78:126–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Beaupre SJ, Dunham AE, Overall KL (1992) Metabolism of a desert lizard: the effects of mass, sex, population of origin, temperature, time of day, and feeding on oxygen consumption of Sceloporus merriami. Physiol Zool 66:128–147Google Scholar
  29. Bech C, Præsteng KE (2004) Thermoregulatory use of heat increment of feeding in the tawny owl (Strix aluco). J Therm Biol 29:649–654Google Scholar
  30. Bedford GS, Christian KA (2001) Metabolic response to feeding and fasting in the water python (Liasis fuscus). Aust J Zool 49:379–387Google Scholar
  31. Belko AZ, Barbieri TF, Wong EC (1986) Effect of energy and protein intake and exercise intensity on the thermic effect of food. Am J Clin Nutr 43:863–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Benedict FG (1915) Factors affecting basal metabolism. J Biol Chem 20:263–299Google Scholar
  33. Benedict FG (1932) The physiology of large reptiles with special reference to the heat production of snakes, tortoises, lizards, and alligators. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ No 425. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  34. Benedict FG (1936) The physiology of the elephant. Carnegie Institute of Washington, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  35. Benedict FG (1938) Henry Prentiss Armsby (1858–1921). Natl Acad Sci Biogr Mem 19:271–284Google Scholar
  36. Benedict FG, Emmes LE (1912) The influence upon metabolism of non-oxidizable material in the intestinal tract. Am J Physiol 30:197–216Google Scholar
  37. Benedict FG, Pratt JH (1913) The metabolism after meat feeding of dogs in which pancreatic external secretion is absent. J Biol Chem 15:1–35Google Scholar
  38. Benedict FG, Ritzman EG (1927) The metabolic stimulus of food in the case of steers. Proc Natl Acad Sci 13:136–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bennett AF, Hicks JW (2001) Postprandial exercise: prioritization or additivity of the metabolic responses? J Exp Biol 204:2127–2132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Bennett VA, Kukal O, Lee RE (1999) Metabolic opportunists: feeding and temperature influence the rate and pattern of respiration in the high arctic woollybear caterpillar Gynaephora groenlandica (Lymantriidae). J Exp Biol 202:47–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Berg K, Lumbye J, Ockelmann KW (1958) Seasonal and experimental variations of the oxygen consumption of the limpet Ancylus fluviatilis (O. F. Müller). J Exp Biol 35:43–73Google Scholar
  42. Berman A, Snapir N (1965) The relation of fasting and resting metabolic rates to heat tolerance in the domestic fowl. Br J Poult Sci 6:207–216Google Scholar
  43. Berteaux D (2000) Energetic cost of heating ingested food in mammalian herbivores. J Mammal 81:683–690Google Scholar
  44. Bessard T, Schultz Y, Jéquier E (1983) Energy expenditure and postprandial thermogenesis in obese women before and after weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr 38:680–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Bidder F, Schmidt C (1852) Die Verdauungssäfte und der Stoffwechsel. G.A Reyher, Mitau and LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  46. Biebach H (1984) Effect of clutch size and time of day on the energy expenditure of incubating starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Physiol Zool 57:26–31Google Scholar
  47. Blaikie HB, Kerr SR (1996) Effect of activity level on apparent heat increment in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 53:2093–2099Google Scholar
  48. Blaxter KL (1962) The energy metabolism of ruminants. Hutchinson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  49. Blaxter KL (1989) Energy metabolism in animals and man. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  50. Blaxter KL, Joyce JP (1963) The accuracy and ease with which measurements of metabolism can be made with tracheostomized sheep. Br J Nutr 17:523–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Bloesch D, Schutz Y, Breitenstein E, Jequier E, Felber JP (1988) Thermogenic response to an oral glucose load in man: comparison between young and elderly subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 7:471–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Bonnet R (1926) Grandeur de l’action dynamique spécifique en fonction de la température extérieure chez les poïkilothermes. Ann Physiol Physicochim Biol 2:192–214Google Scholar
  53. Borsook H (1936) The specific dynamic action of protein and amino acids in animals. Biol Rev 11:147–180Google Scholar
  54. Borsook H, Keighley G (1933) The energy of urea synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci 19:626–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Boyce SJ, Clarke A (1997) Effects of body size and ration on specific dynamic action in the Antarctic plunderfish, Harpagifer antarcticus Nybelin 1947. Physiol Zool 70:679–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Bradley TJ, Brethorst L, Robinson S, Hetz S (2003) Changes in the rate of CO2 release following feeding in the insect Rhodnius proxlixus. Physiol Biochem Zool 76:302–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Bray GA, Whipp BJ, Koyal SN (1974) The acute effects of food intake on energy expenditure during cycle ergometry. Am J Clin Nutr 27:254–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Brett JR (1964) The respiratory metabolism and swimming performance of young sockeye salmon. J Fish Res Bd Can 21:1183–1226Google Scholar
  59. Brett JR (1965) The relation of size to rate of oxygen consumption and sustained swimming speed of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). J Fish Res Bd Can 22:1491–1497Google Scholar
  60. Britt EJ, Hicks JW, Bennett AF (2006) The energetic consequences of dietary specialization in populations of the garter snake, Thamnophis elegans. J Exp Biol 209:3164–3169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Brodeur JC, Calvo J, Johnston IA (2003) Proliferation of myogenic progenitor cells following feeding in the sub-antarctic notothenioid fish Harpagifer bispinis. J Exp Biol 206:163–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Brody S (1945) Bioenergetics and growth. Hafner, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. Bronstein MN, Mak RP, King JC (1995) The thermic effect of food in normal-weight and overweight pregnant women. Br J Nutr 74:261–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Brown CR, Cameron JN (1991a) The induction of specific dynamic action in channel catfish by infusion of essential amino acids. Physiol Zool 64:276–297Google Scholar
  65. Brown CR, Cameron JN (1991b) The relationship between specific dynamic action (SDA) and protein synthesis rates in the channel catfish. Physiol Zool 64:298–309Google Scholar
  66. Burggren WW, Moreira GS, Santos MCF (1993) Specific dynamic action and the metabolism of the brachyuran land crab Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787), Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803) and Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1825. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 169:117–130Google Scholar
  67. Busk M, Jensen FB, Wang T (2000a) Effects of feeding on metabolism, gas transport, and acid–base balance in the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. Am J Physiol 278:R185–R195Google Scholar
  68. Busk M, Overgaard J, Hicks JW, Bennett AF, Wang T (2000b) Effects of feeding on arterial blood gases of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. J Exp Biol 203:3117–3124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Buttery PJ, Boorman KN (1976) The energetic efficiency of amino acid metabolism. In: Cole DJA, Boorman KN, Buttery PJ, Lewis D, Neale RJ, Swan H (eds) Protein nutrition and metabolism. Butterworths, London, pp 197–206Google Scholar
  70. Buytendijk FJJ (1910) About exchange of gases in cold-blooded animals in connection with their size. Proc R Neth Acad Arts Sci 13:48–53Google Scholar
  71. Campbell RG, Welle SL, Seaton TB (1987) Specific dynamic action revisited: studies of hormonal regulation of energy expenditure in man. Trans Am Climatol Assoc 99:136–143Google Scholar
  72. Campbell KL, McIntyre IW, MacArthur RA (2000) Postprandial heat increment does not substitute for active thermogenesis in cold-challenged star-nosed moles (Condylura cristata). J Exp Biol 203:301–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Canjani C, Andrade DV, Cruz-Neto AP, Abe AS (2003) Aerobic metabolism during predation by a boid snake. Comp Biochem Physiol 133A:487–498Google Scholar
  74. Carefoot TH (1990a) Specific dynamic action (SDA) in the supralittoral isopod, Ligia pallasii: identification of components of apparent SDA and effects of dietary amino acid quality and content on SDA. Comp Biochem Physiol 95A:309–316Google Scholar
  75. Carefoot TH (1990b) Specific dynamic action (SDA) in the supralittoral isopod, Ligia pallasii: effect of ration and body size on SDA. Comp Biochem Physiol 95A:317–320Google Scholar
  76. Carter CG, Brafield AE (1992) The relationship between specific dynamic action and growth in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.). J Fish Biol 40:895–907Google Scholar
  77. Caulton MS (1978) The importance of habitat temperature for growth in the tropical cichlid Tilapia rendalli Boulenger. J Fish Biol 13:99–112Google Scholar
  78. Chakraborty SC, Ross LG, Ross B (1992) Specific dynamic action and feeding metabolism in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Comp Biochem Physiol 103A:809–815Google Scholar
  79. Chambers WH, Lusk G (1930) Specific dynamic action in the normal and phlorhizinized dog. J Chem Biol 85:611–626Google Scholar
  80. Chapelle G, Peck LS, Clarke A (1994) Effects of feeding and starvation on the metabolic rate of the necrophagous Antarctic amphipod Waldeckia obesa (Chevreux, 1905). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 183:63–76Google Scholar
  81. Chappel RW, Hudson RJ (1978) Energy cost of feeding in rocky mountain bighorn sheep. Acta Theriol 23:359–363Google Scholar
  82. Chappell MA, Bachman GC, Hammond KA (1997) The heat increment of feeding in house wren chicks: magnitude, duration, and substitution for thermostatic costs. J Comp Physiol B 167:313–318Google Scholar
  83. Christel CM, DeNardo DF, Secor SM (2007) Metabolic and digestive response to food ingestion in a binge-feeding lizard, the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum). J Exp Biol 210:3430–3439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Christian K, Webb JK, Schultz T, Green B (2007) Effects of seasonal variation in prey abundance on field metabolism, water flux, and activity of a tropical ambush foraging snake. Physiol Biochem Zool 80:522–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Christopherson RJ, Webster AJF (1972) Changes during eating in oxygen consumption, cardiac function and body fluids of sheep. J Physiol 221:441–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Clarke BC, Nicolson SW (1994) Water, energy, and electrolyte balance in captive Namib sand-dune lizards (Angolosaurus skoogi). Copeia 1994:962–974Google Scholar
  87. Clarke A, Prothero-Thomas E (1997) The influence of feeding on oxygen consumption and nitrogen excretion in the Antarctic nemertean Parborlasia corrugatus. Physiol Zool 70:639–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Coneição LEC, Dersjant-Li Y, Verreth JAJ (1998) Cost of growth in larva and juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in relation to growth rate, food intake and oxygen consumption. Aquaculture 161:95–106Google Scholar
  89. Congdon JD, Dunham AE, Tinkle DW (1982) Energy budgets and life histories of reptiles. In: Gans C, Pough FH (eds) Biology of the reptilia, vol 13. Academic Press, London, pp 233–272Google Scholar
  90. Costa DP, Kooyman GL (1984) Contribution of specific dynamic action to heat balance and thermoregulation in the sea otter Enhydra lutris. Physiol Zool 57:199–203Google Scholar
  91. Coulson RA, Hernandez T (1979) Increase in metabolic rate of the alligator fed proteins or amino acids. J Nutr 109:538–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Coulson RA, Hernandez T (1980) Oxygen debt in reptiles: relationship between the time required for repayment and metabolic rate. Comp Biochem Physiol 65:453–457Google Scholar
  93. Coulson RA, Hernandez T (1983) Alligator metabolism, studies on chemical reactions in vivo. Comp Biochem Physiol 74:1–182Google Scholar
  94. Crear BJ, Forteath GNR (2000) The effect of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on oxygen consumption by the southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 252:129–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Crear BJ, Forteath GNR (2001) Flow-rate requirements for captive western rock lobsters (Panulirus cygnus): effects of body weight, temperature, activity, emersion, daily rhythm, feeding and oxygen tension on oxygen consumption. Mar Freshw Res 52:763–771Google Scholar
  96. Crisp M, Davenport J, Shumway SE (1978) Effects of feeding and of chemical stimulation on the oxygen uptake of Nassarius reticulatus (Gastropoda: prosobranchia). J Mar Biol Assoc UK 58:387–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Crosland M (1978) Gay–Lussac, scientist and bourgeois. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  98. Cruz-Neto AP, Andrade DV, Abe AS (1999) Energetic cost of predation: aerobic metabolism during prey ingestion by juvenile rattlesnakes, Crotalus durissus. J Herpetol 33:229–234Google Scholar
  99. Cruz-Neto AP, Andrade DV, Abe AS (2001) Energetic and physiological correlates of prey handling and ingestion in lizards and snakes. Comp Biochem Physiol 128A:515–533Google Scholar
  100. Cui Y, Liu J (1990) Comparison of energy budget among six teleosts—II. Metabolic rates. Comp Biochem Physiol 97A:169–174Google Scholar
  101. Cui Y, Wootton RJ (1988) The metabolic rate of the minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus (L.) (Pisces: Cyprinidae), in relation to ration, body size, and temperature. Funct Ecol 2:157–161Google Scholar
  102. Curcio C, Lopes AM, Ribeiro MO, Francoso OA, Carvalho SD, Lima FB, Bicudo JE, Bianco AC (1999) Development of compensatory thermogenesis in response to overfeeding in hypothyroid rats. Endocrinology 140:3438–3443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. D’Alessio DA, Kavie EC, Mozzoll MA, Smalley KJ, Polansky M, Kendrick ZV, Owen LR, Bushman MC, Boden G, Owen OE (1988) Thermic effect of food in lean and obese men. J Clin Invest 81:1781–1789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Dall W, Smith DM (1986) Oxygen consumption and ammonia-N excretion in fed and starved tiger prawns, Penaeus esculentus Haswell. Aquaculture 55:23–33Google Scholar
  105. Dallosso HM, James WPT (1984) Whole-body calorimetry studies in adult men. 2. The interaction of exercise and overfeeding on the thermic effect of a meal. Br J Nutr 52:65–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Dann M, Chambers WH (1930) The metabolism of glucose administration to the fasting dog. J Biol Chem 89:675–688Google Scholar
  107. Dann M, Chambers WH (1933) Factors influencing the metabolism of glucose ingested by fasting dogs. J Biol Chem 100:493–519Google Scholar
  108. Dann M, Chambers WH, Lusk G (1931) The influence of phlorhizin glycosuria on the metabolism of dogs after thyroidectomy. J Biol Chem 94:511–527Google Scholar
  109. de Jonge L, Bray GA (1997) The thermic effect of food and obesity: a critical review. Obes Res 5:622–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. De la Gándara F, García-Gómez A, Jover M (2002) Effect of feeding frequency on the daily oxygen consumption rhythms in young Mediterranean yellowtails (Seriola dumerili). Aquac Eng 26:27–39Google Scholar
  111. Deuel HJ (1927) The respiratory metabolism following the administration of various carbohydrates. J Biol Chem 75:367–391Google Scholar
  112. Diamond P, LeBlanc J (1987a) Hormonal control of postprandial thermogenesis in dogs. Am J Physiol 253:E521–E529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Diamond P, LeBlanc J (1987b) Role of autonomic nervous system in postprandial thermogenesis in dogs. Am J Physiol 252:E719–E726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Diamond P, LeBlanc J (1988) A role for insulin in cephalic phase of postprandial thermogenesis in dogs. Am J Physiol 254:E625–E632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Diamond P, Brondel L, LeBlanc J (1985) Palatability and postprandial thermogenesis in dogs. Am J Physiol 248:E75–E79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Du L, Niu C-J (2002) Effects of dietary protein level on bioenergetics of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobranchium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879) (Decapoda, Natantia). Crustaceana 75:875–889Google Scholar
  117. Du Preez HH (1987) Laboratory studies on the oxygen consumption of the marine teleost, Lichia amia (Linnaeus, 1758). Comp Biochem Physiol 88A:523–532Google Scholar
  118. Du Preez HH, Strydom W, Winter PED (1986a) Oxygen consumption of two marine teleosts, Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Lithognathus lithognathus (Cuvier, 1830) (Teleosti: Sparidae). Comp Biochem Physiol 85A:313–331Google Scholar
  119. Du Preez HH, McLachlan A, Marais JFK (1986b) Oxygen consumption of a shallow water teleost, the spotted grunter, Pomadasys commersonni (Lacépéde, 1802). Comp Biochem Physiol 84A:61–70Google Scholar
  120. Du Preez HH, Chen H-Y, Hsieh C-S (1992) Apparent specific dynamic action of food in the grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius. Comp Biochem Physiol 103A:173–178Google Scholar
  121. Ege R, Krogh A (1914) On the relation between the temperature and the respiratory exchange in fishes. Int Rev Ges Hydrobiol Hydrogr 7:48–55Google Scholar
  122. Eisemann JH, Nienaber JA (1990) Tissue and whole-body oxygen uptake in fed and fasted steers. Br J Nutr 64:399–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Elia M, Folmer P, Schlatmann A, Goren A, Austin S (1988) Carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in muscle and in the whole body after mixed meal ingestion. Metabolism 37:542–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Elliott JM (1976) The energetics of feeding, metabolism, and growth in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in relation to body weight, water temperature and ration size. J Anim Ecol 45:923–948Google Scholar
  125. Enstipp MR, Grémillet D, Jones DR (2008) Heat increment of feeding in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and its potential for thermal substitution. J Exp Biol 211:49–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Even PC, Bertin E, Gangnerau M-N, Roseau S, Tomé D, Portha B (2002) Energy restriction with protein restriction increases basal metabolism and meal-induced thermogenesis in rats. Am J Physiol 284:R751–R759Google Scholar
  127. Fauconneau B, Breque J, Bielle C (1989) Influence of feeding on protein metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture 79:29–36Google Scholar
  128. Feder ME, Gibbs AG, Griffith GA, Tsuji J (1984) Thermal acclimation of metabolism in salamanders: fact or artefact? J Therm Biol 9:255–260Google Scholar
  129. Ferry-Graham LA, Gibb AC (2001) Comparison of fasting and postfeeding metabolic rates in a sedentary shark, Cephaloscyllium ventriosum. Copeia 2001:1108–1113Google Scholar
  130. Fitzgibbon QP, Seymour RS, Ellis D, Buchanan J (2007) The energetic consequence of specific dynamic action in the southern bluefin tuna Thunnus maccoyii. J Exp Biol 210:290–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Forbes EB, Swift RW (1944) Associative dynamic effects of protein, carbohydrate and fat. J Nutr 27:453–468Google Scholar
  132. Forbes EB, Kriss M, Miller RC (1934) The energy metabolism of the albino rat in relation to the plane of nutrition. J Nutr 8:535–552Google Scholar
  133. Forsum E, Hillman PE, Nesheim MC (1981) Effect of energy restriction on total heat production, basal metabolic rate, and specific dynamic action of food in rats. J Nutr 111:1691–1697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Forte JG, Machen TE, Öbrink JK (1980) Mechanisms of gastric H+ and Cl transport. Ann Rev Physiol 42:111–126Google Scholar
  135. Fry FEJ, Hart JS (1948) The relation of temperature to oxygen consumption in the goldfish. Biol Bull 94:66–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Fu SJ, Xie XJ (2004) Nutritional homeostasis in carnivorous southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis): is there a mechanism for increased energy expenditure during carbohydrate overfeeding? Comp Biochem Physiol 139A:359–363Google Scholar
  137. Fu SJ, Xie XJ, Cao ZD (2005a) Effect of feeding level and feeding frequency on specific dynamic action in Silurus meridionalis. J Fish Biol 67:171–181Google Scholar
  138. Fu SJ, Xie XJ, Cao ZD (2005b) Effect of fasting on resting metabolic rate and postprandial metabolic response in Silurus meridionalis. J Fish Biol 67:279–285Google Scholar
  139. Fu SJ, Xie XJ, Cao ZD (2005c) Effect of meal size on postprandial metabolic response in southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis). Comp Biochem Physiol 140A:445–451Google Scholar
  140. Fu SJ, Xie XJ, Cao ZD (2005d) Effect of dietary composition on specific dynamic action in southern catfish Silurus meridionalis Chen. Aquacult Res 36:1384–1390Google Scholar
  141. Fu SJ, Cao ZD, Peng JL (2006) Effect of meal size on postprandial metabolic response in Chinese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus). J Comp Physiol B 176:489–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Furnell DJ (1987) Partitioning of locomotor and feeding metabolism in sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria). Can J Zool 65:486–489Google Scholar
  143. Gabarrou J-F, Géraert P-A, Picard M, Bordas A (1997) Diet-induced thermogenesis in cockerels is modulated by genetic selection for high and low residual feed intake. J Nutr 127:2371–2376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Gaebler OH (1929) The specific dynamic action of meat in hypophysectomized dogs. J Biol Chem 81:41–47Google Scholar
  145. Gaffney PM, Diehl WJ (1986) Growth, condition and specific dynamic action in the mussel Mytilus edulis recovering from starvation. Mar Biol 93:401–409Google Scholar
  146. Gallagher ML, Matthews AM (1987) Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of the American eel Anguilla rostrata fed diets with varying protein energy ratios and proteins levels. J World Aquac Soc 18:107–112Google Scholar
  147. Gallivan GJ, Best RC (1986) The influence of feeding and fasting on the metabolic rate and ventilation of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis). Physiol Zool 59:552–557Google Scholar
  148. Gallivan GJ, Ronald K (1981) Apparent specific dynamic action in the harp seal (Phoca groenlandica). Comp Biochem Physiol 69A:579–581Google Scholar
  149. Garnett S (1988) Digestion, assimilation and metabolism of captive estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus. Comp Biochem Physiol 90A:23–29Google Scholar
  150. Garrow JS (1973) Specific dynamic action. In: Apfelbaum M (ed) Energy balance in man. Masson, Paris, pp 209–218Google Scholar
  151. Gatten RE (1980) Metabolic rates of fasting and recently fed spectacled caimans (Caiman crocodilus). Herpetologica 36:361–364Google Scholar
  152. Gatten RE, Miller K, Full RJ (1992) Energetics at rest and during locomotion. In: Feder ME, Burggren WW (eds) Environmental physiology of the amphibians. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 314–377Google Scholar
  153. Geesaman JA, Nagy KA (1988) Energy metabolism: errors in gas-exchange conversion factors. Physiol Zool 61:507–513Google Scholar
  154. Geraert PA, MacLeod MG, Leclercq B (1988) Energy metabolism in genetically fat and lean chickens: diet- and cold-induced thermogenesis. J Nutr 118:1232–1239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Gibbons R (1924) On the specific dynamic action of proteins in thin and fat individual dogs. Am J Physiol 70:26–28Google Scholar
  156. Glass NR (1968) The effect of time of food deprivation on the routine oxygen consumption of largemouth black bass (Micropterus salmoides). Ecology 49:340–343Google Scholar
  157. González-Peña MdelC, Moreira MdGBS (2003) Effect of dietary cellulose level on specific dynamic action and ammonia excretion of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man 1879). Aquac Res 34:821–827Google Scholar
  158. Gray EM, Bradley TJ (2003) Metabolic rate in female Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae): age, size, activity, and feeding effects. J Med Entomol 40:903–911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Gray R, McCraken KJ (1980) Plane of nutrition and the maintenance requirement. In: Mount L (ed) Proceedings of the eighth symposium on energy metabolism. Butterworths, London, pp 163–167Google Scholar
  160. Grayson KL, Cook LW, Todd MJ, Pierce D, Hopkins WA, Gatten RE, Dorcas ME (2005) Effects of prey type on specific dynamic action, growth, and mass conversion efficiencies in the horned frog, Ceratophrys cranwelli. Comp Biochem Physiol 141A:298–304Google Scholar
  161. Green JA, Frappell PB, Clark TD, Butler PJ (2006) Physiological response to feeding in little penguins. Physiol Biochem Zool 79:1088–1097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Grimmond NM, Preest MR, Pough FH (1994) Energetic cost of feeding on different kinds of prey for the lizard Chalcides ocellatus. Funct Ecol 8:17–21Google Scholar
  163. Großmann J, Starck JM (2006) Postprandial responses in the African rhombig egg eater (Dasypeltis scabra). Zoology 109:310–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Guerouali A, Filali RZ, Vermoret M, Sardeh MF (2004) Maintenance energy requirements and energy utilization by dromedary at rest. J Camel Sci 1:37–45Google Scholar
  165. Guinea J, Fernandez F (1997) Effect of feeding frequency, feeding level and temperature on energy metabolism in Sparus aurata. Aquaculture 148:125–142Google Scholar
  166. Hailey A (1998) The specific dynamic action of the omnivorous tortoise Kinixys spekii in relation to diet, feeding pattern, and gut passage. Physiol Zool 71:57–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Hailey A, Davies PM (1987) Digestion, specific dynamic action, and ecological energetics of Natrix maura. Herpetol J 1:159–166Google Scholar
  168. Haimovici H (1939) The specific dynamic action of protein in sympathectomized cats. Am J Physiol 127:642–648Google Scholar
  169. Hall KD (2006) Computational model of in vivo human energy metabolism during semistarvation and refeeding. Am J Physiol 291:E23–E37Google Scholar
  170. Hamada A, Ida T (1973) Studies on specific dynamic action of fishes I. Various conditions affecting the value of measurement. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 39:1231–1235Google Scholar
  171. Hamada A, Maeda W (1983) Oxygen uptake due to specific dynamic action of the carp, Cyprinus carpio. Jpn J Limnol 44:225–239Google Scholar
  172. Han X-T, Nozière P, Rémond D, Chabrot J, Doreau M (2002) Effects of nutrient supply and dietary bulk on O2 uptake and nutrient net fluxes across rumen, mesenteric-, and portal-drained viscera in ewes. J Anim Sci 80:1362–1375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Hári P (1917) Beiträge zum Stoff- und Energieumsatz der Vögel. Biochem Ztschr 78:313–348Google Scholar
  174. Hári P, Kriwuscha A (1918) Weitere Beiträge zum Stoff- und Energieumsatz der Vögel. Biochem Ztschr 88:345–362Google Scholar
  175. Hartzler LK, Munns SL, Bennett AF, Hicks JW (2006) Metabolic and blood gas dependence on digestive state in the savannah monitor lizard Varanus exanthematicus: an assessment of the alkaline tide. J Exp Biol 209:1052–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Hawkins PA, Butler PJ, Woakes AJ, Gabrielsen GW (1997) Heat increment of feeding in Brünnich’s guillemont Uria lomvia. J Exp Biol 200:1757–1763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Heiman DR, Knight AW (1975) The influence of temperature on the bioenergetics of the carnivorous stonefly nymph, Acroneuria californica Banks (Plecoptera: Peridae). Ecology 56:105–116Google Scholar
  178. Hervant F, Mathieu J, Barré H, Simon K, Pinon C (1997) Comparative study on the behavioral, ventilatory, and respiratory responses of hypogean and epigean crustaceans to long-term starvation and subsequent feeding. Comp Biochem Physiol 118A:1277–1283Google Scholar
  179. Hewitt DR, Irving MG (1990) Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of the brown tiger pawn Penaeus esculentus fed diets of varying protein content. Comp Biochem Physiol 96A:373–378Google Scholar
  180. Hicks JW, Bennett AF (2004) Eat and run: prioritization of oxygen delivery during elevated metabolic states. Resp Physiol Neuro 144:215–224Google Scholar
  181. Hicks JW, Wang T, Bennett AF (2000) Patterns of cardiovascular and ventilatory response to elevated metabolic states in the lizard Varanus exanthematicus. J Exp Biol 203:2437–2445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Hiller-Adams P, Childress JJ (1983) Effects of feeding, feeding history, and food deprivation on respiration and excretion rates of the bathypelagic mysid Gnathophausia ingens. Biol Bull 165:182–196Google Scholar
  183. Hindle AG, McIntyre IW, Campbell KL, MacArthur RA (2003) The heat increment of feeding and its thermoregulatory implications in the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda). Can J Zool 81:1445–1453Google Scholar
  184. Hinds DS, Baudinette RV, MacMillen RE, Halpern EA (1993) Maximum metabolism and the aerobic factorial scope of endotherms. J Exp Biol 182:41–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Hopkins WA, Roe JH, Philippi T, Congdon JD (2004) Standard and digestive metabolism in the banded water snake, Nerodia fasciata fasciata. Comp Biochem Physiol 137A:141–149Google Scholar
  186. Hoppeler H, Weibel ER (1998) Limits for oxygen and substrate transport in mammals. J Exp Biol 201:1051–1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Houlihan DF, Waring CP, Mathers E, Gray C (1990) Protein synthesis and oxygen consumption of the shore crab Carcinus maenas after a meal. Physiol Zool 63:735–756Google Scholar
  188. Hunt von Herbing I, White L (2002) The effects of body mass and feeding on metabolic rate in small juvenile Atlantic cod. J Fish Biol 61:945–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Huuskonen H, Karjalainen J, Medgyesy N, Wieser W (1998) Energy allocation in larva and juvenile Coregonus lavaretus: validation of a bioenergetic model. J Fish Biol 52:962–972Google Scholar
  190. Hyman LH (1919) Physiological studies on Planaria I. Oxygen consumption in relation to feeding and starvation. Am J Physiol 49:377–402Google Scholar
  191. Iglesias S, Thompson MB, Seebacher F (2003) Energetic cost of a meal in a frequent feeding lizard. Comp Biochem Physiol 135A:377–382Google Scholar
  192. Ikeda T, Dixon P (1984) The influence of feeding on the metabolic activity of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana). Polar Biol 3:1–9Google Scholar
  193. James WPT (1992) From SDA to DIT to TEF. In: Kinney JM, Tucker HN (eds) Energy metabolism: tissue determinants and cellular corollaries. Raven, New York, pp 163–186Google Scholar
  194. Janes DN, Chappell MA (1995) The effect of ration size and body size on specific dynamic action in Adélie penguin chicks, Pygoscelis adeliae. Physiol Zool 68:1029–1044Google Scholar
  195. Jensen PG, Pekins PJ, Holter JB (1999) Compensatory effect of the heat increment of feeding on thermoregulatory costs of white-tailed deer fawns in winter. Can J Zool 77:1474–1485Google Scholar
  196. Jobling M (1981) The influences of feeding on the metabolic rates of fishes: a short review. J Fish Biol 18:385–400Google Scholar
  197. Jobling M (1994) Fish bioenergetics. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  198. Jobling M, Davies PS (1980) Effects of feeding on metabolic rate, and the specific dynamic action in plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L. J Fish Biol 16:629–638Google Scholar
  199. Johnston IA, Battram J (1993) Feeding energetics and metabolism in demersal fish species from Antarctic, temperate and tropical environments. Mar Biol 115:7–14Google Scholar
  200. Jolyet F, Regnard P (1877) Réserches physiologiques sur la respiration des animaux aquatiques. Arch Physiol Normale Pathol 4:584–633Google Scholar
  201. Jordan AD, Steffensen JF (2007) Effects of ration size and hypoxia on specific dynamic action in the cod. Physiol Biochem Zool 80:178–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Kalarani V, Davies RW (1994) The bioenergetic cost of specific dynamic action and ammonia excretion in a freshwater predatory leech Nephelopsis obscura. Comp Biochem Physiol 108A:523–531Google Scholar
  203. Karst H, Steiniger J, Noack R, Steglich H-D (1984) Diet-induced thermogenesis in man: thermic effect of single proteins, carbohydrates and fats depending on their energy amount. Ann Nutr Metab 28:245–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Kaseloo PA, Lovvorn JR (2003) Heat increment of feeding and thermal substitution in mallard ducks feeding voluntarily on grain. J Comp Physiol B 173:207–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Kaseloo PA, Lovvorn JR (2006) Substitution of heat from exercise and digestion by ducks diving for mussels at varying depths and temperatures. J Comp Physiol B 176:265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Katzeff HL, Danforth E (1989) Decrease thermic effect of a mixed meal during overnutrition in human obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 50:915–921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Kaushik SJ, Dabrowski K (1983) Postprandial metabolic change in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio). Reprod Nutr Dev 23:223–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Kelly JM, Southorn BG, Kelly CE, Milligan LP, McBride BW (1993) Quantification of in vivo energy metabolism of the gastrointestinal tract of fed or fasted sheep. Can J Anim Sci 73:855–868Google Scholar
  209. Kiørboe T, Møhlenberg F, Hamburger K (1985) Bioenergetics of the planktonic copepod Acartia tonsa: relation between feeding, egg production and respiration, and composition of specific dynamic action. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 26:85–97Google Scholar
  210. Klaassen M, Bech C, Slagsvold G (1989) Basal metabolic rate and thermal conductance in arctic tern chicks and the effect of heat increment of feeding on thermoregulatory expenses. Ardea 77:193–200Google Scholar
  211. Kleiber M (1961) The fire of life, an introduction to animal energetics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  212. Kleiber M, Dougherty JE (1934) The influence of environmental temperature on the utilization of food energy in baby chicks. J Gen Physiol 17:701–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Klein W, Perry SF, Abe AS, Andrade DV (2006) Metabolic response to feeding in Tupinambis merianae: circadian rhythm and a possible respiratory constraint. Physiol Biochem Zool 79:593–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Koshio S, Castell JD, O’Dor RK (1992) The effect of different dietary energy levels in crab-protein-based diets on digestibility, oxygen consumption, and ammonia excretion of bilaterally eyestalk-ablated and intact juvenile lobsters, Homarus americanus. Aquaculture 108:285–297Google Scholar
  215. Kowalski A (2005) Specific dynamic action in hatchling and posthatchling green (Chelonia mydas) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) sea turtles. MS thesis, Florida Atlantic UniversityGoogle Scholar
  216. Krebs HA (1964) The metabolic rate of amino acids. In: Munro HN, Allison JB (eds) Mammalian protein metabolism. Academic Press, New York, pp 125–176Google Scholar
  217. Kriss M (1938) The specific dynamic effects of proteins when added in different amounts to a maintenance ration. J Nutr 15:565–581Google Scholar
  218. Kriss M, Forbes EB, Miller RC (1934) The specific dynamic effects of protein, fat, and carbohydrates as determined with the albino rat at different planes of nutrition. J Nutr 8:509–534Google Scholar
  219. Labayen I, Forga L, Martinez JA (1999) Nutrient oxidation and metabolic rate as affected by meals containing different proportions of carbohydrate and fat, in healthy young women. Eur J Nutr 38:158–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Lampert W (1986) Response of the respiratory rate of Daphnia magna to changing food conditions. Oecologia 70:495–501Google Scholar
  221. Lane JM, Lawrence JM (1979) The effect of size, temperature, oxygen level and nutritional condition on oxygen uptake in the sand dollar, Mellita quinquiesperforata (Leske). Biol Bull 157:275–287Google Scholar
  222. Lawler JP, White RG (2003) Temporal responses in energy expenditure and respiratory quotient following feeding in the muskox: influence of season on energy costs of eating and standing and an endogenous heat increment. Can J Zool 81:1524–1538Google Scholar
  223. LeBlanc J, Brondel L (1985) Role of palatability on meal-induced thermogenesis in human subjects. Am J Physiol 248:E333–E336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. LeBlanc J, Diamond P (1986) Effect of meal size and frequency on postprandial thermogenesis in dogs. Am J Physiol 250:E144–E147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Legeay A, Massabuau J-C (1999) Blood oxygen requirements in resting crab (Carcinus maenas) 24 h after feeding. Can J Zool 77:784–794Google Scholar
  226. LeGrow SM, Beamish FWH (1986) Influence of dietary protein and lipid on apparent heat increment of rainbow trout, Salmo gairderi. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 43:19–25Google Scholar
  227. Lied E, Rosenlund G, Lund B, von der Decken A (1983) Effect of starvation and refeeding on in vitro protein synthesis in white trunk muscle of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Comp Biochem Physiol 76B:777–781Google Scholar
  228. Lilly GR (1979) The influence of diet on the oxygen uptake of the sea urchin, Tripneustes ventricosus and Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Comp Biochem Physiol 62A:463–470Google Scholar
  229. Liu J, Cui Y, Liu J (2000) Resting metabolism and heat increment of feeding in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) and Chinese snakehead (Channa argus). Comp Biochem Physiol 127A:131–138Google Scholar
  230. Lotz CN, Martínez del Rio C, Nicolson SW (2003) Hummingbirds pay a high cost for a warm drink. J Comp Physiol B 173:455–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Lovatto PA, Sauvant D, Noblet J, Dubois S, van Milgen J (2006) Effects of feed restriction and subsequent refeeding on energy utilization in growing pigs. J Anim Sci 84:3329–3336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Lu H-L, Ji X, Pan Z-C (2004) Influence of feeding on metabolic rate in the brown forest skink, Sphenomorphus indicus. Chin J Zool 39:5–8Google Scholar
  233. Lucas MC, Priede IG (1992) Utilization of metabolic scope in relation to feeding and activity by individual and grouped zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio (Hamilton–Buchanan). J Fish Biol 41:175–190Google Scholar
  234. Luo Y, Xie X (2008) Effects of temperature on the specific dynamic action of the southern catfish, Silurus meridionalis. Comp Biochem Physiol 149A:150–156Google Scholar
  235. Lusk G (1912a) Metabolism after the ingestion of dextrose and fat, including the behavior of water, urea, and sodium chloride solutions. J Biol Chem 13:27–47Google Scholar
  236. Lusk G (1912b) The influence of mixtures of food-stuffs upon metabolism. J Biol Chem 13:185–207Google Scholar
  237. Lusk G (1912c) The influence of the ingestion of amino-acids upon metabolism. J Biol Chem 13:155–183Google Scholar
  238. Lusk G (1915) An investigation into the causes of the specific dynamic action of foodstuff. J Biol Chem 20:555–617Google Scholar
  239. Lusk G (1921) The behavior of various intermediary metabolites upon the heat production. J Biol Chem 49:453–478Google Scholar
  240. Lusk G (1928) The elements of the science of nutrition. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  241. Lusk G (1931) The specific dynamic action. J Nutr 3:519–530Google Scholar
  242. Luz J, Griggio MA, Fagundes DJ, Araújo Marcondes W (2000) Oxygen consumption of rats with broad intestinal resection. Braz J Med Biol Res 33:1497–1500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Lyndon AR, Houlihan DF, Hall SJ (1992) The effect of short-term fasting and a single meal on protein synthesis and oxygen consumption in cod, Gadus morhua. J Comp Physiol B 162:209–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Machida Y (1981) Study of the specific dynamic action of some freshwater fishes. Rep Usa Mar Biol Inst 3:1–50Google Scholar
  245. MacLeod MG (1991) Effects of feeding by crop intubation on energy metabolism and physical activity in domestic cockerels. Br Poult Sci 32:1089–1095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. MacLeod MG, Tullett SG, Jewitt TR (1980) Effects of ambient temperature on the heat production of growing turkeys. In: Mount L (ed) Proceedings of the eighth symposium on energy metabolism. Butterworths, London, pp 257–261Google Scholar
  247. Maffeis C, Schutz Y, Grezzani A, Provera S, Piacentini G, Tatò L (2001) Meal-induced thermogenesis and obesity: is a fat meal a risk factor for fat gain in children? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:214–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Mamun SM, Focken U, Becker K (2007) Comparison of metabolic rates and feed nutrient digestibility in conventional, genetically improved (GIFT) and genetically male (GMNT) Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Comp Biochem Physiol 148A:214–222Google Scholar
  249. Mann KH (1958) Seasonal variation in the respiratory acclimatization of the leech Erpobdella testacea (Sav.). J Exp Biol 35:314–323Google Scholar
  250. Marcellini DL, Peters A (1982) Preliminary observations on endogenous heat production after feeding in Python molurus. J Herpetol 16:92–95Google Scholar
  251. Marjoniemi K (2000) The effect of short-term fasting on shivering thermogenesis in Japanese quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica): indications for a significant role of diet-induced/growth related thermogenesis. J Therm Biol 25:459–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Markussen NH, Ryg M, Øritsland NA (1994) The effect of feeding on the metabolic rate in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina). J Comp Physiol B 164:89–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Marques-Lopes I, Forga L, Martínez JA (2003) Thermogenesis induced by a high-carbohydrate meal in fasted lean and overweight young men: insulin, body fat, and sympathetic nervous system involvement. Nutrition 19:25–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Masman D, Daan S, Dietz M (1989) Heat increment of feeding in the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, and its natural seasonal variation. In: Bech C, Reinertsen RE (eds) Physiology of cold adaptation in birds. Plenum, New York, pp 123–135Google Scholar
  255. Mason EH (1927) Abnormal specific dynamic action of protein, glucose, and fat associated with undernutrition. J Clin Invest 4:353–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Maynard LA (1969) Francis Gano Benedict—a biographical sketch. J Nutr 98:1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. McClellan WS, Spencer HJ, Falk EA (1931) Prolonged meat diets with a study of the respiratory mechanism. J Biol Chem 93:419–434Google Scholar
  258. McCollum A, Geubtner J, Hunt von Herbing I (2006) Metabolic cost of feeding in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae using microcalorimetry. ICES J Mar Sci 63:335–339Google Scholar
  259. McCue MD (2006) Specific dynamic action: a century of investigation. Comp Biochem Physiol 144A:381–394Google Scholar
  260. McCue MD (2007) Prey envenomation does not improve digestive performance in western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox). J Exp Zool 307A:568–577Google Scholar
  261. McCue MD, Lillywhite HB (2002) Oxygen consumption and the energetics of island-dwelling Florida cottonmouth snakes. Physiol Biochem Zool 75:165–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. McCue MD, Bennett AF, Hicks JW (2005) The effect of meal composition on specific dynamic action in Burmese pythons (Python molurus). Physiol Biochem Zool 78:182–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. McEvoy PB (1984) Increase in respiratory rate during feeding in larvae of the cinnabar moth Tyria jacobaeae. Physiol Entom 9:191–195Google Scholar
  264. McEwan EH (1970) Energy metabolism of barred ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Can J Zool 48:391–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. McGaw IJ (2006) Feeding and digestion in low salinity in an osmoconforming crab, Cancer gracilis I. Cardiovascular and respiratory responses. J Exp Biol 209:3766–3776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. McGaw IJ (2007) The interactive effects of exercise and feeding on oxygen uptake, activity levels, and gastric processing in the graceful crab, Cancer gracilis. Physiol Biochem Zool 80:335–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. McGaw IJ, Reiber CL (2000) Integrated physiological responses to feeding in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. J Exp Biol 203:359–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. McMillan DN, Houlihan DF (1988) The effect of refeeding on tissue protein synthesis in rainbow trout. Physiol Zool 61:429–441Google Scholar
  269. McPherson BF (1968) Feeding and oxygen uptake of the tropical sea urchin Eucidaris tribuloides (Lamarck). Biol Bull 135:308–321Google Scholar
  270. Medland TE, Beamish FWH (1985) The influence of diet and fish density on apparent increment in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Aquaculture 47:1–10Google Scholar
  271. Meienberger C, Dauberschmidt C (1992) Kan die “spezifisch dynamishe Wirkung” einen Beitrag zer Thermoregulation körnerfressender Singvögel leisten? J Ornithol 133:33–41Google Scholar
  272. Mente E, Legeay A, Houlihan DF, Massabuae J-C (2003) Influence of oxygen partial pressures on protein synthesis in feeding crabs. Am J Physiol 284:R500–R510Google Scholar
  273. Miller DS, Mumford P, Stock MJ (1967) Glutttony 2. Thermogenesis in overeating man. Am J Clin Nutr 20:1223–1229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Mitchell HH (1937) Carl von Voit. J Nutr 13:3–13Google Scholar
  275. Mitchell HH (1964) Comparative nutrition of man and domestic animals. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  276. Mitchell HH, Haines WT (1927) The basal metabolism of mature chickens and the net energy value of corn. J Agric Res 44:917–943Google Scholar
  277. Miura T, Suzuki N, Nagoshi M, Yamamura K (1976) The rate of production and food consumption of the biwamasu, Oncorhynchus rhodurus, population in Lake Biwa. Res Popul Ecol 17:135–154Google Scholar
  278. Morgan JB, York DA (1983) Thermic effect of feeding in relation to energy balance in elderly men. Ann Nutr Metab 27:71–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Morgan JB, York DA, Wasilewska A, Portman J (1982) A study of the thermic responses to a meal and to a sympathomimetic drug (ephedrine) in relation to energy balance in man. Br J Nutr 47:21–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Moukaddem M, Boulier A, Apfelbaum M, Rigaud D (1997) Increase in diet-induced thermogenesis at the start of refeeding in severely malnourished anorexia nervosa patients. Am J Clin Nutr 66:133–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Moyes CD, Schulte PM (2006) Principles of animal physiology. Pearson, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  282. Muir BS, Niimi AJ (1972) Oxygen consumption of the euryhaline fish aholehole (Kuhlia sandvicensis) with reference to salinity, swimming, and food consumption. J Fish Res Bd Can 29:67–77Google Scholar
  283. Murlin JR, Lusk G (1915) The influence of the ingestion of fat. J Biol Chem 22:15–41Google Scholar
  284. Nacht CA, Christin L, Temler E, Chioléro R, Jéquier E, Acheson KJ (1987) Thermic effect of food: possible implication of parasympathetic nervous system. Am J Physiol 253:E481–E488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Nagy KA (1989) Doubly-labeled water studies of vertebrate physiological ecology. In: Rundel PW, Ehleringer JR, Nagy KA (eds) Stable isotopes in ecological research. Springer, New York, pp 270–287Google Scholar
  286. Nair KS, Halliday D, Garrow JS (1983) Thermic response to isoenergetic protein, carbohydrate or fat meals in lean and obese subjects. Clin Sci 65:307–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Nelson SG, Knight AW, Li HW (1977) The metabolic cost of food utilization and ammonia production by juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Palaemonidae). Comp Biochem Physiol A 57:67–72Google Scholar
  288. Nelson SG, Simmons MA, Knight AW (1985) Calorigenic effect of diet on the grass shrimp Crangon franciscorum (Crustacea: Crangonidae). Comp Biochem Physiol 82A:373–376Google Scholar
  289. Nespolo R, Bacigalupe LD, Bozinovic F (2003) The influence of heat increment of feeding on basal metabolic rate in Phyllotis darwini (Muridae). Comp Biochem Physiol 134A:139–145Google Scholar
  290. Nespolo R, Castañeda LE, Roff DA (2005) The effect of fasting on activity and resting metabolism in the sand cricket, Gryllus firmus: a multivariate approach. J Insect Physiol 51:61–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Newell RC, Kofoed LH (1977) The energetics of suspension-feeding in the gastropod Crepidula fornicata L. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 57:161–180Google Scholar
  292. Newell RC, Roy A, Armitage KB (1976) An analysis of factors affecting the oxygen consumption of the isopod Ligia oceanica. Physiol Zool 49:109–137Google Scholar
  293. Niewiarolwski PH, Waldschmidt SR (1992) Variation in metabolic rates of lizard: use of SMR in ecological contexts. Funct Ecol 6:15–22Google Scholar
  294. Nord F, Deuel HJ (1928) The specific dynamic action of glycine given orally and intravenously to normal and to adrenalectomized dogs. J Biol Chem 80:115–124Google Scholar
  295. O’Grady SP (2006) Morphological and physiological adaptations for herbivory in small lizards. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of UtahGoogle Scholar
  296. Oliva-Teles A, Kaushik SJ (1987) Metabolic utilization of diets by polypoid rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Comp Biochem Physiol 88A:45–47Google Scholar
  297. Osuji PO, Gordon JG, Webster AJF (1975) Energy exchanges associated with eating and rumination in sheep given grass diets of different physical forms. Br J Nutr 34:59–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Ott BD, Secor SM (2007a) The specific dynamic action of boas and pythons. In: Henderson RW, Powell R (eds) Biology of boas and pythons. Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Utah, pp 299–310Google Scholar
  299. Ott BD, Secor SM (2007b) Adaptive regulation of digestive performance in the genus Python. J Exp Biol 210:340–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Overgaard J, Busk M, Hicks JW, Jensen FB, Wang T (1999) Respiratory consequences of feeding in the snake Python molorus. Comp Biochem Physiol 124A:359–365Google Scholar
  301. Overgaard J, Andersen JB, Wang T (2002) The effects of fasting duration on the metabolic response to feeding in Python molurus: an evaluation of the energetic costs associated with gastrointestinal growth and upregulation. Physiol Zool 75:360–368Google Scholar
  302. Owen SF (2001) Meeting energy budgets by modulation of behaviour and physiology in the eel (Anguilla anguilla L.). Comp Biochem Physiol 128A:631–644Google Scholar
  303. Pan Z-C, Ji X, Lu H-L (2004) Influence of food types on specific dynamic action of feeding in hatchling red-eared slider turtles Trachemys scripta elegans. Acta Zool Sin 50:459–463Google Scholar
  304. Pan Z-C, Ji X, Lu H-L, Ma X-M (2005a) Metabolic response to feeding in the Chinese striped-necked turtle, Ocadia sinensis. Comp Biochem Physiol 141A:470–475Google Scholar
  305. Pan Z-C, Ji X, Lu H-L, Ma X-M (2005b) Influence of food type on specific dynamic action of the Chinese skink Eumeces chinensis. Comp Biochem Physiol 140A:151–155Google Scholar
  306. Pannevis MC, Houlihan DF (1992) The energetic cost of protein synthesis in isolated hepatocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss). J Comp Physiol B 162:393–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Peck LS (1996) Metabolism and feeding in the Antarctic brachiopod Liothyrella uva: a low energy lifestyle species with restricted metabolic scope. Proc R Soc Lond B 263:223–228Google Scholar
  308. Peck LS, Veal R (2001) Feeding, metabolism and growth in the Antarctic limpet, Nacella concinna (Stebel 1908). Mar Biol 138:553–560Google Scholar
  309. Peck MA, Buckley LJ, Bengtson DA (2003) Energy losses due to routine and feeding metabolism in young-of-the-year juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 60:929–937Google Scholar
  310. Peres H, Oliva-Teles A (2001) Effect of dietary protein and lipid level on metabolic utilization of diets by European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. Fish Physiol Biochem 25:269–275Google Scholar
  311. Peters RH (1989) The ecological implications of body size. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  312. Peterson CC, Walton BM, Bennett AF (1998) Intrapopulation variation in ecological energetics of the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis, with analysis of the precision of doubly labeled water measurements. Physiol Zool 71:333–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Pfeiffer EW, Reinking LN, Hamilton JD (1979) Some effects of food and water deprivation on metabolism in black-tailed prairie dogs, Cynomys ludovicianus. Comp Biochem Physiol 63A:19–22Google Scholar
  314. Pierce RJ, Wissing TE (1974) Energy cost of food utilization in the bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Trans Am Fish Soc 1:38–45Google Scholar
  315. Piers LS, Diggavi SN, Rijskamp J, van Raaij JMA, Shetty PS, Hautvast JGAJ (1995) Resting metabolic rate and thermic effect of a meal in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in well-nourished Indian women. Am J Clin Nutr 61:296–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Piersma T, Lindström Å (1997) Rapid reversible changes in organ size as a component of adaptive behaviour. Trends Ecol Evol 12:134–138Google Scholar
  317. Piersma T, Dekinga A, van Gils JA, Achterkamp B, Visser GH (2003) Cost-benefit analysis of mollusc eating in a shorebird I. Foraging and processing costs estimated by the doubly labelled water method. J Exp Biol 206:3361–3368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Plummer NH, Deuel HJ, Lusk G (1926) The influence of glycyl-glycine upon the respiratory metabolism of the dog. J Biol Chem 69:339–348Google Scholar
  319. Poehlman ET, Melby CL, Badylak SF, Calles J (1989) Aerobic fitness and resting energy expenditure in young adult males. Metabolism 38:85–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Poirier J-P (1996) Lavoisier, chemist, biologist, economist. University of Pennsylvania Press, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  321. Porter KG, Gerritsen J, Orcutt JD (1982) The effect of food concentration on swimming patterns, feeding behavior, ingestion, assimilation, and respiration by Daphnia. Limnol Oceanogr 27:935–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Pough FH, Andrews RM (1985) Energy costs of subduing and swallowing prey for a lizard. Ecology 66:1525–1533Google Scholar
  323. Powell MK, Mansfield-Jones J, Gatten RE (1999) Specific dynamic effect in the horned frog Ceratophrys cranwelli. Copeia 1999:710–717Google Scholar
  324. Prat-Larquemin L, Oppert J-M, Bellisle F, Guy-Grand B (2000) Sweet taste of aspartame and sucrose: effects on diet-induced thermogenesis. Appetite 34:245–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Prest MR (1991) Energetic costs of prey ingestion in a scincid lizard, Scincella lateralis. J Comp Physiol 161:327–332Google Scholar
  326. Radford CA, Marsden ID, Davison W (2004) Temporal variation in the specific dynamic action of juvenile New Zealand rock lobsters, Jasus edwardsii. Comp Biochem Physiol 139A:1–9Google Scholar
  327. Rapatz GL, Musacchia XJ (1957) Metabolism of Chrysemys picta during fasting and during cold torpor. Am J Physiol 188:456–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Rapport D (1924) The relative specific dynamic action of various proteins. J Biol Chem 60:497–511Google Scholar
  329. Rapport D (1926) The specific dynamic action of gelatin hydrolysate. J Biol Chem 71:75–86Google Scholar
  330. Rapport D, Beard HH (1927) The effects of protein split-products upon metabolism. I. The fraction extracted by and precipitated in butyl alcohol (Fraction I). J Biol Chem 73:285–298Google Scholar
  331. Rapport D, Beard HH (1928) The effects of protein split-products upon metabolism. III. Further investigation of the fractionated protein hydrolysates and of amino acids, and their relation to the specific dynamic action of the proteins. J Biol Chem 80:413–430Google Scholar
  332. Rapport D, Weiss R, Csonka FA (1924) The respiratory metabolism of a young pig as influenced by food and benzoic acid. J Biol Chem 60:583–601Google Scholar
  333. Rashotte ME, Basco PS, Henderson RP (1995) Daily cycles in body temperature, metabolic rate, and substrate utilization in pigeons: influence of amount and timing of food consumption. Physiol Behav 57:731–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Rashotte ME, Saarela S, Henderson RP, Hohtola E (1999) Shivering and digestion-related thermogenesis in pigeons during dark phase. Am J Physiol 277:R1579–R1587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Ravussin E, Schutz Y, Acheson KJ, Dusmet M, Bourquin L, Jéquier E (1985) Short-term, mixed-diet overfeeding in man: no evidence for “luxuskonsumption”. Am J Physiol 249:E470–E477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Ravussin E, Lillioja S, Anderson TE, Christin L, Bogardus C (1986) Determinants of 24-hour energy expenditure in man: methods and results using a respirometry chamber. J Clin Invest 78:1568–1578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Reed GW, Hill JO (1996) Measuring the thermic effect of food. Am J Clin Nutr 63:164–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. Reeds PJ, Wahle KWJ, Haggarty P (1982) Energy costs of protein and fatty acid synthesis. Proc Nutr Soc 41:155–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Reeds PJ, Fuller MR, Nicholson BA (1985) Metabolic basis of energy expenditure with a particular reference to protein. In: Garrow JS, Halliday D (eds) Substrate and energy metabolism. Libbey, London, pp 102–107Google Scholar
  340. Reenstra WW, Forte JG (1981) H+/ATP stoichiometry for the gastric (K++H+)-ATPase. J Membr Biol 61:55–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Riddle O, Smith GC, Benedict FG (1932) The basal metabolism of the mourning dove and some of its hybrids. Am J Physiol 101:260–267Google Scholar
  342. Robert KA, Thompson MB (2000) Influence of feeding on the metabolic rate of the lizard, Eulamprus tympanum. Copeia 2000:851–855Google Scholar
  343. Roberts LA (1968) Oxygen consumption in the lizard Uta stansburiana. Ecology 49:809–819Google Scholar
  344. Robertson RF, El-Haj AJ, Clarke A, Peck LS, Taylor EW (2001a) The effects of temperature on metabolic rate and protein synthesis following a meal in the isopod Glyptonotus antarcticus Eights (1852). Polar Biol 24:677–686Google Scholar
  345. Robertson RF, El-Haj AJ, Clarke A, Taylor EW (2001b) Effects of temperature on specific dynamic action and protein synthesis rates in the Baltic isopod crustacean, Saduria entomon. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 262:113–129Google Scholar
  346. Robertson RF, Meagor J, Taylor EW (2002) Specific dynamic action in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas (L.), in relation to acclimation temperature and to the onset of the emersion response. Physiol Biochem Zool 75:350–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Roe JH, Hopkins WA, Snograss JW, Congdon JD (2004) The influence of circadian rhythms on pre- and post-prandial metabolism in the snake Lamprophis fuliginosus. Comp Biochem Physiol 139A:159–168Google Scholar
  348. Roe JH, Hopkins WA, Talent LG (2005) Effects of body mass, feeding, and circadian cycles on metabolism in the lizard Sceloporus occidentalis. J Herpetol 39:595–603Google Scholar
  349. Romon M, Edme J-L, Boulenquez C, Lescroart J-L, Frimat P (1993) Circadian variation of diet-induced thermogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr 57:476–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Rosas C, Bolongaro-Crevenna A, Sanchez A, Gaxiola G, Soto L, Escobar E (1995) Role of digestive gland in the energetic metabolism of Penaeus setiferus. Biol Bull 189:168–174Google Scholar
  351. Rosas C, Sanchez A, Diaz E, Soto LA, Gaxiola G, Brito R (1996) Effect of dietary protein level on apparent heat increment and postprandial nitrogen excretion of Penaeus setiferus, P. schmitti, P. duorarum, and P. notialis Postlarvae. J World Aquac Soc 27:92–102Google Scholar
  352. Rosas C, Cuzon G, Gaxiola G, Le Priol Y, Pascual C, Rossignyol J, Contreras F, Sanchez A, Wormhoudt AV (2001) Metabolism and growth of juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei: effect of salinity and dietary carbohydrate levels. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 259:1–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Rosen DAS, Trites AW (2003) No evidence for bioenergetic interaction between digestion and thermoregulation in Stellar sea lions Eumetopias jubatus. Physiol Biochem Zool 76:899–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Ross LG, McKinney RW, Cardwell SK, Fullarton JG, Roberts SEJ, Ross B (1992) The effects of dietary protein content, lipid content and ration level on oxygen consumption and specific dynamic action in Oreochromis niloticus L. Comp Biochem Physiol 103A:573–578Google Scholar
  355. Rothwell NJ, Saville ME, Stock MJ (1982) Sympathetic and thyroid influences on metabolic rate in fed, fasted, and refed rats. Am J Physiol 243:R339–R346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Rubner M (1902) Die Gesetze des Energieverbrauchs bei der Ernährung. Franz Deuticke, LepizigGoogle Scholar
  357. Sadhu DP, Brody S (1947) Pyridoxine, ketonic acids, and specific dynamic action. Am J Physiol 151:342–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Sanderson SL, Cech JJ (1992) Energetic cost of suspension feeding versus particulate feeding by juvenile Sacramento blackfish. Trans Am Fish Soc 121:149–157Google Scholar
  359. Sarmiento-Franco L, MacLeod MG, McNab JM (2000) True metabolisable energy, heat increment and net energy values of two high fibre foodstuffs in cockerels. Br Poult Sci 41:625–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Saunders RL (1963) Respiration of the Atlantic cod. J Fish Res Bd Can 20:373–386Google Scholar
  361. Schalles JF, Wissing TE (1976) Effects of dry pellet diets on the metabolic rate of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). J Fish Res Bd Can 33:2443–2449Google Scholar
  362. Schmidt-Nielsen K (1989) Scaling: why is animal size so important?. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  363. Schutz Y, Bessard T, Jéquier E (1984) Diet-induced thermogenesis measured over whole day in obese and nonobese women. Am J Clin Nutr 40:542–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Schwartz RS, Jaeger LF, Veith RC (1988) Effect of clonidine on the thermic effect of feeding in humans. Am J Physiol 254:R90–R94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Seagram R, Adams N, Slotow R (2001) Time of feeding and possible associated thermoregulatory benefits in bronze mannikins Lonchura cucullata. Comp Biochem Physiol 130A:809–818Google Scholar
  366. Secor SM (1995) Digestive response to the first meal in hatchling Burmese pythons (Python molurus). Copeia 1995:947–954Google Scholar
  367. Secor SM (2001) Regulation of digestive performance: a proposed adaptive response. Comp Biochem Physiol 128A:565–577Google Scholar
  368. Secor SM (2003) Gastric function and its contribution to the postprandial metabolic response of the Burmese python, Python molurus. J Exp Biol 206:1621–1630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. Secor SM (2005a) Physiological responses to feeding, fasting and estivation for anurans. J Exp Biol 208:2595–2608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. Secor SM (2005b) Evolutionary and cellular mechanisms regulating intestinal performance of amphibians and reptiles. Integr Comp Biol 45:282–294Google Scholar
  371. Secor SM, Boehm M (2006) Specific dynamic action of ambystomatid salamanders and the effects of meal size, meal type, and body temperature. Physiol Biochem Zool 79:720–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. Secor SM, Diamond J (1995) Adaptive responses to feeding in Burmese pythons: pay before pumping. J Exp Biol 198:1313–1325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. Secor SM, Diamond J (1997) Determinants of post-feeding metabolic response in Burmese pythons, Python molurus. Physiol Zool 70:202–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. Secor SM, Diamond J (1999) Maintenance of digestive performance in the turtles Chelydra serpentina, Sternotherus odoratus, and Trachemys scripta. Copeia 1999:75–84Google Scholar
  375. Secor SM, Diamond J (2000) Evolution of regulatory response to feeding in snakes. Physiol Biochem Zool 73:123–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Secor SM, Faulkner AC (2002) Effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the specific dynamic action of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. Physiol Biochem Zool 75:557–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. Secor SM, Nagy KA (1994) Bioenergetic correlates of foraging mode for the snakes Crotalus cerastes and Masticophis flagellum. Ecology 75:1600–1614Google Scholar
  378. Secor SM, Phillips JA (1997) Specific dynamic action of a large carnivorous lizard, Varanus albigularis. Comp Biochem Physiol 117A:515–522Google Scholar
  379. Secor SM, Stein ED, Diamond J (1994) Rapid upregulation of snake intestine in response to feeding: a new model of intestinal adaptation. Am J Physiol 266:G695–G705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. Secor SM, Hicks JW, Bennett AF (2000) Ventilatory and cardiovascular responses of a python (Python molurus) to exercise and digestion. J Exp Biol 203:2447–2454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Secor SM, Wooten JA, Cox CL (2007) Effects of meal size, meal type, and body temperature on the specific dynamic action of anurans. J Comp Physiol B 177:165–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. Segal KR, Gutin B (1983) Thermic effects of food and exercise in lean and obese women. Metabolism 32:581–589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. Segal KR, Gutin B, Nyman AM, Pi-Sunyer FX (1985) Thermic effect of food at rest, during exercise, and after exercise in lean and obese men of similar body weight. J Clin Invest 76:1107–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. Segal KR, Gutin B, Albu J, Pi-Sunyer FX (1987) Thermic effects of food and exercise in lean and obese men of similar lean body mass. Am J Physiol 252:E110–E117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. Shine R, Harlow PS, Keogh JS, Boeadi X (1998) The influence of sex and body size on food habits of a giant tropical snake, Python reticulatus. Funct Ecol 12:248–258Google Scholar
  386. Shumway SE (1983) Factors affecting oxygen consumption in the coot clam Mulinia lateralis (Say). Ophelia 22:143–171Google Scholar
  387. Shumway SE, Lesser MP, Crisp DJ (1993) Specific dynamic action demonstrated in the herbivorous marine periwinkles, Littorina littorea L. and Littorina obtusata L. (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Comp Biochem Physiol 106A:391–395Google Scholar
  388. Sievert LM, Andreadis P (1999) Specific dynamic action and postprandial thermophily in juvenile northern water snakes, Nerodia sipedon. J Therm Biol 24:51–55Google Scholar
  389. Sievert LM, Bailey JK (2000) Specific dynamic action in the toad, Bufo woodhousii. Copeia 2000:1076–1078Google Scholar
  390. Sievert LM, Sievert GA, Cupp PV (1988) Metabolic rate of feeding and fasting juvenile midland painted turtles, Chrysemys picta marginata. Comp Biochem Physiol 90A:157–159Google Scholar
  391. Sigsgaard SJ, Petersen JK, Iversen JJL (2003) Relationship between specific dynamic action and food quality in the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Mar Biol 143:1143–1149Google Scholar
  392. Silva JE (2006) Thermogenic mechanisms and their hormonal regulation. Physiol Rev 86:435–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. Šimek V (1976) Influence of single administration of different diets on the energy metabolism at temperatures of 10, 20, and 30°C in the golden hamster. Physiol Bohemoslov 25:251–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Sims DW, Davies SJ (1994) Does specific dynamic action (SDA) regulate return of appetite in the lesser spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula? J Fish Biol 45:341–348Google Scholar
  395. Skovgaard N, Wang T (2004) Cost of ventilation and effect of digestive state on the ventilatory response of the tegu lizard. Resp Physiol Neurobiol 141:85–97Google Scholar
  396. Smith H (1935) The metabolism of the lung-fish II. Effect of feeding meat on metabolic rate. J Cell Comp Physiol 6:335–349Google Scholar
  397. Smith RR, Rumsey GL, Scott ML (1978) Heat increment associated with dietary protein, fat, carbohydrate and complete diets in salmonids: comparative energetic efficiency. J Nutr 108:1025–1032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. Smith RW, Houlihan DF (1995) Protein synthesis and oxygen consumption in fish cells. J Comp Physiol B 165:93–101Google Scholar
  399. Somanath B, Palavesam A, Lazarus S, Ayyappan M (2000) Influence of nutrient source on specific dynamic action of pearl spot, Etroplus suratensis (Bloch). ICLARM Q 23:15–17Google Scholar
  400. Soofiani NM, Hawkins AD (1982) Energetic costs at different levels of feeding in juvenile cod, Gadus morhua L. J Fish Biol 21:577–592Google Scholar
  401. Soucek DJ (2007) Sodium sulfate impacts feeding, specific dynamic action, and growth rate in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Aquat Toxicol 83:315–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. Starck JM, Wimmer C (2005) Patterns of blood flow during the postprandial response in ball python, Python regius. J Exp Biol 208:881–889PubMedGoogle Scholar
  403. Starck JM, Moser P, Werner RA, Linke P (2004) Pythons metabolize prey to fuel the response to feeding. Proc R Soc Lond B 271:903–908Google Scholar
  404. Starck JM, Cruz-Neto AP, Abe AS (2007) Physiological and morphological responses to feeding in broad-nosed caiman (Caiman latirostris). J Exp Biol 210:2033–2045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. Susenbeth A, Mayer R, Koehler B, Neumann O (1998) Energy requirement for eating in cattle. J Anim Sci 76:2701–2705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. Susenbeth A, Dickey T, Südekum K-H, Drochner W, Steingaß H (2004) Energy requirements of cattle for standing and for ingestion, estimated by a ruminal emptying technique. J Anim Sci 82:129–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. Svetlichny LS, Hubareva ES (2005) The energetics of Calanus euxinus: locomotion, filtration of food and specific dynamic action. J Plankton Res 27:671–682Google Scholar
  408. Swennen Q, Janssens GPJ, Collin A, Le Bihan-Duval E, Verbeke K, Decuypere E, Buyse J (2006) Diet-induced thermogenesis and glucose oxidation in broiler chickens: influence of genotype and diet composition. Poult Sci 85:731–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. Swindells YE (1972) The influence of activity and size of meals on caloric response in women. Br J Nutr 27:65–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. Szmant-Froelich A, Pilson MEQ (1984) Effects of feeding frequency and symbiosis with zooxanthellae on nitrogen metabolism and respiration of the coral Astrangia danae. Mar Biol 81:153–162Google Scholar
  411. Taboada G, Gaxiola G, Garcia T, Pedroza R, Sanchez A, Soto LA, Rosas C (1998) Oxygen consumption and ammonia-N excretion related to protein requirements for growth of white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus (L.), juveniles. Aquac Res 29:823–833Google Scholar
  412. Tai MM, Castillo P, Pi-Sunyer FX (1991) Meal size and frequency: effect on the thermic effect of food. Am J Clin Nutr 54:783–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. Tai MM, Castillo P, Pi-Sunyer FX (1997) Thermic effect of food during each phase of the menstrual cycle. Am J Clin Nutr 66:1110–1115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. Tandler A, Beamish FWH (1979) Mechanical and biochemical components of apparent specific dynamic action in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides Lacépède. J Fish Biol 14:343–350Google Scholar
  415. Tandler A, Beamish FWH (1980) Specific dynamic action and diet in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (Lacépède). J Nutr 110:750–764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. Tandler A, Beamish FWH (1981) Apparent specific dynamic action (SDA), fish weight and level of caloric intake in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides Lacepede. Aquaculture 23:231–242Google Scholar
  417. Tasaki I, Kushima M (1980) Heat production when single nutrients are given to fasted cockerels. In: Mount L (ed) Proceedings of the eighth symposium on energy metabolism. Butterworths, London, pp 253–256Google Scholar
  418. Tataranni PA, Larson DE, Snitker S, Ravussin E (1995) Thermic effect of food in humans: methods and results from use of a respiratory chamber. Am J Clin Nutr 61:1013–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. Tattersall GJ, Milson WK, Abe AS, Brito S, Andrade DV (2004) The thermogenesis of digestion in rattlesnakes. J Exp Biol 207:579–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. Terroine EF, Bonnet R (1926) Le mécanisme de l’action dynamique spécifique. Ann Physiol Physicochim Biol 2:488–508Google Scholar
  421. Thompson GG, Withers PC (1999) Effect of sloughing and digestion on metabolic rate in the Australian carpet python Morelia spilota imbricata. Aust J Zool 47:605–610Google Scholar
  422. Thompson RJ, Bayne BL (1972) Active metabolism associated with feeding in the mussel Mytilus edulis L. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 9:111–124Google Scholar
  423. Thor P (2000) Relationship between specific dynamic action and protein deposition in calanoid copepods. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 245:171–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. Thor P, Cervetto G, Besiktepe S, Ribera-Maycas E, Tan KW, Dam HG (2002) Influence of two different green algal diets on specific dynamic action and incorporation of carbon into biochemical fractions in the copepod Acartia tonsa. J Plankton Res 24:293–300Google Scholar
  425. Thorarensen H, Farrell AP (2006) Postprandial intestinal blood flow, metabolic rates, and exercise in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Physiol Biochem Zool 79:688–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. Thörne A, Wahren J (1989) Beta-adrenergic blockade does not influence the thermogenic response to mixed meal in man. Clin Physiol 9:305–307Google Scholar
  427. Thörne A, Wahren J (1990) Diminished meal-induced thermogenesis in elderly man. Clin Physiol 10:427–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. Thörne A, Näslund I, Wahren J (1990) Meal-induced thermogenesis in previously obese patients. Clin Physiol 10:99–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. Tittelbach TJ, Mattes RD (2002) Effect of orosensory stimulation on postprandial thermogenesis in humans. Physiol Behav 75:71–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. Torres JJ, Brightman RI, Donnelly J, Harvey J (1996) Energetics of larval red drum, Sciaenops occelatus. Part 1: oxygen consumption, specific dynamic action, and nitrogen excretion. Fish Bull 94:756–765Google Scholar
  431. Toryu Y (1928) Respiratory exchange in Carassius auratus and the gaseous exchange of the swimbladder. Tohoku Sci Rep Ser 43:87–96Google Scholar
  432. Toledo LF, Abe AS, Andrade DV (2003) Temperature and meal size effects on the postprandial metabolism and energetics in a boid snake. Physiol Biochem Zool 76:240–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. Toutain P-L, Toutain C, Webster AJF, McDonald JD (1977) Sleep and activity, age and fatness, and the energy expenditure of confined sheep. Br J Nutr 38:445–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. Tremblay A, Côte J, LeBlanc J (1983) Diminished dietary thermogenesis in exercise-trained human subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol 52:1–4Google Scholar
  435. Tuttle WW, Horvath SM, Presson LF, Daum K (1953) Specific dynamic action of protein in men past 60 years of age. J Appl Physiol 5:631–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. Uriona TJ, Farmer CG, Dazely J, Clayton F, Moore J (2005) Structure and function of the esophagus of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). J Exp Biol 208:3047–3053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. Vahl O (1984) The relationship between specific dynamic action (SDA) and growth in the common starfish, Asterias rubens L. Oecologia 61:122–125Google Scholar
  438. Vahl O, Davenport J (1979) Apparent specific dynamic action of food in the fish Blennius pholis. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 1:109–113Google Scholar
  439. Vernberg FJ (1959) Studies on the physiological variation between tropical and temperate zone fiddler crabs of the genus Uca II. Oxygen consumption of whole organisms. Biol Bull 117:163–184Google Scholar
  440. Verboeket-van de Venne WPHG, Westerterp KR, Hermans-Limpens TJFMB, de Graff C, van et Hoff KH, Weststrate JA (1996) Long-term effects of consumption of full-fat or reduced-fat products in healthy non-obese volunteers: assessment of energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Metabolism 45:1004–1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  441. Visser M, Deurenberg P, van Staveren WA, Hautvast JGAJ (1995) Resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis in young and elderly subjects: relationship with body composition, fat distribution, and physical activity level. Am J Clin Nutr 61:772–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  442. von Brand T, Nolan MO, Mann ER (1948) Observations on the respiration of Australorbis glabratus and some other aquatic snails. Biol Bull 95:199–213Google Scholar
  443. von Mering J, Zuntz N (1877) In wiefern beeinflusst Nährungszuführ die thierischen Oxydationsprocesse? Pflüeger’s Arch Gesamte Physiol Menschen Tiere 15:634–636Google Scholar
  444. Wallace JC (1973) Feeding, starvation and metabolic rate in the shore crab Carcinus maenas. Mar Biol 20:277–281Google Scholar
  445. Wang T, Busk M, Overgaard J (2001) The respiratory consequences of feeding in amphibians and reptiles. Comp Biochem Physiol 128A:535–549Google Scholar
  446. Wang T, Burggren W, Nobrega E (1995) Metabolic, ventilatory, and acid–base responses associated with specific dynamic action in the toad Bufo marinus. Physiol Zool 68:192–205Google Scholar
  447. Wang T, Zaar M, Arvedsen S, Vedel-Smith C, Overgaard J (2003) Effects of temperature on the metabolic response to feeding in Python molurus. Comp Biochem Physiol 133A:519–527Google Scholar
  448. Wang T, Hung CCY, Randall DJ (2006) The comparative physiology of food deprivation: from feast to famine. Annu Rev Physiol 68:223–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. Webster AJF (1972) Act of eating and its relation to the heat increment of feed in ruminants. In: Smith RE, Hannon J, Shields JL, Horwitz BA (eds) International symposium on environmental physiology: bioenergetics. Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology, Bethesda, MD, pp 42–50Google Scholar
  450. Webster AJF, Osuji PO, Weekes TEC (1976) Origins of the heat increment of feeding in sheep. In: Vermorel M (ed) Energy metabolism of farm animals. European Association for Animal Production, Publ No. 19, Clermont-Ferrand, France, pp 45–48Google Scholar
  451. Weiss R, Rapport D (1924) The interrelations between certain amino acids and proteins with reference to their specific dynamic action. J Biol Chem 60:513–544Google Scholar
  452. Welle S, Lilavivat U, Campbell RG (1981) Thermic effect of feeding in man: increased plasma norepinephrine levels following glucose but not protein or fat consumption. Metabolism 30:953–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. Wells MJ, O’Dor RK, Mangold K, Wells J (1983) Feeding and metabolic rate in Octopus. Mar Behav Physiol 9:305–317Google Scholar
  454. Westerterp KR (2004) Diet induced thermogenesis. Nutr Metab 1:5 (online)Google Scholar
  455. Westerterp KR, Wilson SAJ, Rolland V (1999) Diet induced thermogenesis measured over 24 h in a respiration chamber: effect of diet composition. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23:287–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Van Den Heuvel E, Wouters L, Ten Hoor F (1992) Diet-induced thermogenesis and cumulative food intake curves as a function of familiarity with food and dietary restraint in humans. Physiol Behav 51:457–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. Weststrate JA (1993) Resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis: a methodological reappraisal. Am J Clin Nutr 58:592–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. Weststrate JA, Hautvast GAJ (1990) The effects of short-term carbohydrate overfeeding and prior exercise on resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Metabolism 39:1232–1239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. Westrate JA, Van Der Kooy K, Deurenberg P, Hautvast JGAJ (1989) Surprising large impact of psychological stress on diet-induced thermogenesis but not on resting metabolic rate. In: Westrate JA (ed) Resting metabolic rate and diet induced thermogenesis, Wageningen, pp 131–137Google Scholar
  460. Weststrate JA, Dopheide T, Robroch L, Deurenberg P, Hautvast JGAJ (1990) Does variation in palatability affect the postprandial response in energy expenditure? Appetite 15:209–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. Whiteley NM, Taylor EW, El Haj AJ (1996) A comparison of the metabolic cost of protein synthesis in stenothermal and eurythermal isopod crustaceans. Am J Physiol 271:R1295–R1303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. Whiteley NM, Robertson RF, Meagor J, El Haj AJ, Taylor EW (2001) Protein synthesis and specific dynamic action in crustaceans: effects of temperature. Comp Biochem Physiol 128A:595–606Google Scholar
  463. Widdows J, Hawkins AJS (1989) Partitioning of rate of heat dissipation by Mytilus edulis into maintenance, feeding, and growth components. Physiol Zool 62:764–784Google Scholar
  464. Wierzuchowski M, Ling SM (1925) On fat production in a young hog. J Biol Chem 64:697–707Google Scholar
  465. Wieser W, Medgyesy N (1990) Aerobic maximum for growth in the larvae and juveniles of a cyprinid fish, Rutilus rutilus (L.): implications for energy budgeting in small poikilotherms. Funct Ecol 4:233–242Google Scholar
  466. Wieser W, Medgyesy N (1991) Metabolic rate and cost of growth in juvenile pike (Exox lucius L.) and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.): the use of energy budgets as indicators of environmental change. Oecologia 87:500–505Google Scholar
  467. Wieser W, Krumschnabel G, Ojwang-Okwor JP (1992) The energetics of starvation and growth after refeeding in juveniles of three cyprinid species. Environ Biol Fish 33:63–71Google Scholar
  468. Wilhelmj CM (1935) The specific dynamic action of food. Physiol Rev 15:202–220Google Scholar
  469. Wilhelmj CM, Bollman JL, Mann FC (1928) Studies on the physiology of the liver XVII. The effect of removal of the liver on the specific dynamic action of amino acids administered intravenously. Am J Physiol 87:497–509Google Scholar
  470. Williams HB, Riche JA, Lusk G (1912) Metabolism of the dog following the ingestion of meat in large quantity. J Biol Chem 12:349–376Google Scholar
  471. Williams HH (2003) I. Perspective of the founding of AIN. J Nutr 133:34E–45EGoogle Scholar
  472. Wilson RP, Culik BM (1991) The cost of a hot meal: facultative specific dynamic action may ensure temperature homeostasis in post-ingestive endotherms. Comp Biochem Physiol 100A:151–154Google Scholar
  473. Withers PC (1992) Comparative animal physiology. Saunders College Publishing, Fort WorthGoogle Scholar
  474. Xie S, Cui Y, Yang Y, Liu J (1997) Bioenergetics of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: effects of food ration size on metabolic rate. Asian Fish Sci 10:155–162Google Scholar
  475. Xu D-D, Li F-M, Lu H-L (2006) Influence of feeding on metabolic rate in Bowring’s gecko, Hemidactylus bowringii. Sich J Zool 25:369–371Google Scholar
  476. Yarzhombek AA, Shcherbina TV, Shmakov NF, Gusseynov AG (1984) Specific dynamic effect of food on fish metabolism. J Ichthyol 23:111–117Google Scholar
  477. Young BA (1966) Energy expenditure and respiratory activity of sheep during feeding. Aust J Agric Res 17:355–362Google Scholar
  478. Young JB, Landsberg L (1977) Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system during sucrose feeding. Nature 269:615–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  479. Young SR, Block W (1980) Some factors affecting metabolic rate in an Antarctic mite. Oikos 34:178–185Google Scholar
  480. Zahorska-Markiewicz B (1980) Thermic effect of food and exercise in obesity. Eur J Appl Physiol 44:231–235Google Scholar
  481. Zaidan F, Beaupre SJ (2003) Effects of body mass, meal size, fast length, and temperature on specific dynamic action in the timber rattlesnake. Physiol Biochem Zool 76:447–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  482. Zanotto FP, Gouveia SM, Simpson SJ, Raubenheimer D, Calder PC (1997) Nutritional homeostasis in locusts: is there a mechanism for increase energy expenditure during carbohydrate overfeeding? J Exp Biol 200:2437–2448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  483. Zebe E, Roters F-J, Kaiping B (1986) Metabolic changes in the medical leech Hirudo medicinalis following feeding. Comp Biochem Physiol 84A:49–55Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA

Personalised recommendations