Journal of Comparative Physiology B

, Volume 176, Issue 5, pp 441–452 | Cite as

Food deprivation alters osmoregulatory and metabolic responses to salinity acclimation in gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus

  • Sergio Polakof
  • Francisco J. Arjona
  • Susana Sangiao-Alvarellos
  • María P. Martín del Río
  • Juan M. Mancera
  • José L. Soengas
Original Paper


The influence of acclimation to different environmental salinities (low salinity water, LSW; seawater, SW; and hyper saline water, HSW) and feeding conditions (fed and food deprived) for 14 days was assessed on osmoregulation and energy metabolism of several tissues of gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus. Fish were randomly assigned to one of six treatments: fed fish in LSW, SW, and HSW, and food-deprived fish in LSW, SW, and HSW. After 14 days, plasma, liver, gills, kidney and brain were taken for the assessment of plasma osmolality, plasma cortisol, metabolites and the activity of several enzymes involved in energy metabolism. Food deprivation abolished or attenuated the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity observed in LSW- and HSW-acclimated fish, respectively. In addition, a linear relationship between renal Na+,K+-ATPase activity and environmental salinity was observed after food deprivation, but values decreased with respect to fed fish. Food-deprived fish acclimated to extreme salinities increased production of glucose through hepatic gluconeogenesis, and the glucose produced was apparently exported to other tissues and served to sustain plasma glucose levels. Salinity acclimation to extreme salinities enhanced activity of osmoregulatory organs, which is probably sustained by higher glucose use in fed fish but by increased use of other fuels, such as lactate and amino acids in food-deprived fish.


Osmotic acclimation Food deprivation Gilthead sea bream Energy metabolism 



Alanine aminotransferase (EC.


Aspartate aminotransferase (EC.


Indirect enzyme immunoassay


Hexokinase (EC.


Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (EC.




Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC.


Glucose 6-phosphatase (EC.


Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC.


Glutamate dehydrogenase (EC.


Glucokinase (EC.


Glycogen phosphorylase (EC.


3-Hydroxiacil-CoA-dehydrogenase (EC.


High salinity water


Lactate dehydrogenase-oxidase (EC.


Low salinity water


6-Phosphofructo 1-kinase (EC.


Pyruvate kinase (EC.







This study was partly supported by grants VEM2003-20062 (Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología and FEDER, Spain), and PGIDT04PXIC31208PN and PGIDIT05PXIC31202PN (Xunta de Galicia, Spain) to J.L. Soengas, and grant BFU2004-04439-CO2-01B (Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología and FEDER, Spain) to J.M. Mancera. The authors wish to thank Planta de Cultivos Marinos (CASEM, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain) for providing them with experimental fish.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergio Polakof
    • 1
  • Francisco J. Arjona
    • 2
  • Susana Sangiao-Alvarellos
    • 1
  • María P. Martín del Río
    • 2
  • Juan M. Mancera
    • 2
  • José L. Soengas
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorio de Fisioloxía Animal, Facultade de Ciencias do Mar, Edificio de Ciencias ExperimentaisUniversidade de VigoVigoSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y AmbientalesUniversidad de CádizPuerto RealSpain

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