Endogenous timing mechanism controlling the circannual pupation rhythm of the varied carpet beetle Anthrenus verbasci
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This paper describes the detailed characteristics of the circannual pupation rhythm in Anthrenus verbasci determined by laboratory experiments under various photoperiods and temperatures. The frequency distribution of larval duration showed a periodic pattern over 2–3 years and the period was 37–40 weeks under a constant short-day photoperiod (light:dark 12:12) at 20°C. This rhythm showed temperature compensation to some extent under a short-day photoperiod between 17.5°C and 27.5°C. Under alternations of a long-day (light:dark 16:8) and a short-day photoperiod, pupation occurred 21–24.5 weeks after transfer from a long-day to a short-day photoperiod. Therefore, we concluded that the timing of pupation in A. verbasci is controlled by a circannual rhythm and its zeitgeber is a change in photoperiod. Furthermore, when larvae were transferred from a long-day to a short-day photoperiod at various ages, the larval duration after the photoperiodic transfer depended on the time of the transfer. This difference can be explained by phase-dependent phase shifts in the circannual rhythm.
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