Behavioural and physiological responses to low- and high-intensity locomotion in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

  • Jiangtao Li
  • Xiuwen Xu
  • Wentao Li
  • Xiumei Zhang
Original paper


We explored stroke behaviour, energy sources, and their related metabolic enzymes during multi-intensity swimming and tail-flipping at low- and high-intensity modes in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. In swimming, shrimp were encouraged to swim at velocities of 3, 6, 9 cm s−1 for 200 min (low-intensity), and at 12, 15, 18 cm s−1 until fatigue (high-intensity). In tail-flipping, shrimp were encouraged to tail-flip by tapping cephalothorax at frequencies of 0.020, 0.040, 0.063 Hz (one tap every 50, 25, 16 s) for 5 min (low-intensity), and at 0.083, 0,100, 0.125 Hz (one tap every 12, 10, 8 s) until no response (high-intensity). Results showed that shrimp increased stroke rates of pleopods and uropods to elevate swimming and tail-flipping ability. For low-intensity locomotion, glycogen was burned in aerobic pathway due to low pleopods beat frequency in swimming; however, glycogen was anaerobically burned due to high uropods beat amplitude in tail-flipping. Anaerobic metabolism occurred in high-intensity locomotion in either swimming or tail-flipping. Critical contents of muscle lactate causing locomotion fatigue might be around threefold of rest condition. Shrimp reduced locomotive time to avoid glycogen exhaustion and lactate accumulation during high-intensity locomotion. These findings highlight our understanding of physiological mechanisms of locomotion activities in shrimp.


Aerobic metabolism Energy sources Glycolysis Migration Predator evasion 



The authors thank Yongliang Liu in Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences for help with experiment performance.


This study was funded by the national program on key basic research project (973 Program) (2015CB453302).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

359_2018_1306_MOESM1_ESM.rar (59 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (RAR 59 KB)
359_2018_1306_MOESM2_ESM.rar (180.1 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (RAR 184444 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiangtao Li
    • 1
  • Xiuwen Xu
    • 1
  • Wentao Li
    • 1
  • Xiumei Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of EducationOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production ProcessesQingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina

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