Magnetic field perception in the rainbow trout Oncorynchus mykiss: magnetite mediated, light dependent or both?
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In the present study, we demonstrate the role of the trigeminal system in the perception process of different magnetic field parameters by heartbeat conditioning, i.e. a significantly longer interval between two consecutive heartbeats after magnetic stimulus onset in the salmonid fish Oncorhynchus mykiss. The electrocardiogram was recorded with subcutaneous silver wire electrodes in freely swimming fish. Inactivation of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve by local anaesthesia revealed its role in the perception of intensity/inclination of the magnetic field by abolishing the conditioned response (CR). In contrast, experiments with 90° direction shifts clearly showed the normal conditioning effect during trigeminal inactivation. In experiments under red light and in darkness, CR occurred in case of both the intensity/inclination stimulation and 90° direction shifts, respectively. With regard to the data obtained, we propose the trigeminal system to perceive the intensity/inclination of the magnetic field in rainbow trouts and suggest the existence of another light-independent sensory structure that enables fish to detect the magnetic field direction.
KeywordsRainbow trout Trigeminus Magnetic field Navigation Anadromy
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