Advertisement

Journal of Comparative Physiology A

, Volume 192, Issue 10, pp 1147–1164 | Cite as

Control of swing movement: influences of differently shaped substrate

  • Michael Schumm
  • Holk CruseEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Stick insects were studied while walking on different substrates. The trajectories of swing movements are recorded. The starting position of a swing movement is varied in vertical direction and in the direction parallel to body long axis. The trajectories found cannot be predicted by an ANN (Swingnet1) proposed earlier to describe swing movements. However, a modified network (Swingnet2) allows for a satisfying description of the behavioral results. Walking on a narrow treadwheel leads to different swing trajectories compared to walking on a broad treadwheel. These trajectories cannot be described by Swingnet1, too. The form of the swing trajectory may depend on the direction of the force vector by which the leg acts on the ground in the preceding stance. Based on this assumption, an alternative hypothesis (Swingnet3) is proposed that can quantitatively describe all results of our experiment. When stick insects walk from a wide to a narrow substrate, transition between different swing trajectories does not change gradually over time. Rather, the form of the trajectory is determined by the current sensory input of the leg on a step-to-step basis. Finally, four different avoidance reflexes and their implementation into swing movements are investigated and described by a quantitative simulation.

Keywords

Stick insect Walking Swing movement Simulation Antagonistic control 

Abbreviations

AEP

Anterior extreme position

CSP

Coxal swing position

CxTr

Coxa–Trochanter joint

FeTi

Femur–Tibia joint

PEP

Posterior extreme position

SEP

Swing extreme position

ThCx

Thorax–Coxa joint

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by DFG grant Cr58/10-1 and by the EC IST program SPARK. Experiments comply with the “Principles of animal care”, publication No. 86-23, revised 1985 of the National Institute of Health, and also with the current laws of the Federal Republic of Germany.

References

  1. Akay T, Bässler U, Gerharz P, Büschges A (2001) The role of sensory signals from the insect coxa-trochanteral joint in controlling motor activity of the femur-tibia joint. J Neurophysiol 85:594–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartling C, Schmitz J (2000) Reaction to disturbances of a walking leg during stance. J Exp Biol 203:1211–1233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bässler U (1993) The walking- (and searching-) pattern generator of stick insects, a modular system of reflex chains and endogenous oscillators. Biol Cybern 69:305–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bässler U, Rohrbacher J, Karg G, Breutel G (1991) Interruption of searching movements of partly restrained front legs of stick insects, a model situation for the start of a stance phase? Biol Cybern 65:507–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bläsing B (2006) Crossing large gaps—a simulation of stick insect behaviour. Adaptive Behavior (in press)Google Scholar
  6. Brown TG (1911) The intrinsic factors in the act of progression in the mammal. Proc R Soc Lond B 84:308–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brunn DE, Heuer A (1998) Cooperative mechanisms between leg joints of Carausius morosus, II Motor neuron activity and influence of conditional bursting interneuron. J Neurophysiol 79:2977–2985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Burrows M (1996) The neurobiology of an insect brain. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  9. Büschges A, Schmitz J (1991) Nonspiking pathways antagonize the resistance reflex in the thoraco-coxal joint of stick insects. J Neurobiol 22:224-237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cruse H (1976a) The control of the body position in the stick insect (Carausius morosus), when walking over uneven surfaces. Biol Cybern 24:25-33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cruse H (1976b) On the function of the legs in the free walking stick insect Carausius morosus. J Comp Physiol 112:235-262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cruse H (1979) The control of the anterior extreme position of the hindleg of a walking insect. Physiol Entomol 4:121-124Google Scholar
  13. Cruse H (1985) Which parameters control the leg movement of a walking insect? II. The start of the swing phase. J Exp Biol 116:357-362Google Scholar
  14. Cruse H (1990) What mechanisms coordinate leg movement in walking arthropods? Trends Neurosci 13:15-21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cruse H (2002) The functional sense of “central oscillations” in walking. Biol Cybern 86:271–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cruse H, Bartling C (1995) Movement of joint angles in the legs of a walking insect, Carausius morosus. J Insect Physiol 41:761–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cruse H, Riemenschneider D, Stammer W (1989) Control of body position of a stick insect standing on uneven surfaces. Biol Cybern 61:71-77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cruse H, Dautenhahn K, Schreiner H (1992) Coactivation of leg reflexes in the stick insect. Biol Cybern 67:369–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cruse H, Schmitz J, Braun U, Schweins A (1993) Control of body height in a stick insect walking on a treadwheel. J Exp Biol 181:141–155Google Scholar
  20. Cruse H, Bartling C, Cymbalyuk G, Dean J, Dreifert M (1995) A modular artificial neural net for controlling a six-legged walking system. Biol Cybern 72:421–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cruse H, Kindermann T, Schumm M, Dean J, Schmitz J (1998) Walknet—a biologically inspired network to control six-legged walking. Neural Netw 11:1435– 1447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dean J (1990) Coding proprioceptive information to control movement to a target: simulation with a simple neural network. Biol Cybern 63:115-120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dean J, Wendler G (1982) Stick insects walking on a wheel: Perturbations induced by obstruction of leg protraction. J Comp Physiol 148:195-207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dean J, Wendler G (1983) Stick insect locomotion on a walking wheel Interleg coordination of leg position. J Exp Biol 103:75-94Google Scholar
  25. Delcomyn F (1971) Computer aided analysis of a locomotor leg reflex in the cockroach. Z vergl Physiol 74:427-445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Diederich B, Schumm M, Cruse H (2002) Stick insects walking along inclined surfaces. Integr Comp Biol 42:165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dillmann R, Albiez J, Gassmann B, Kerscher T (2005) Biologically motivated control of walking machines. In: Armada M, González de Santos P (eds) Proceedings of the 7th international conference on climbing and walking robots, CLAWAR 2004. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 55–69Google Scholar
  28. Dreifert M (1994) Plastizität im Laufverhalten der indischen Stabheuschrecke Carausius morosus: Experimentelle Untersuchungen und Modellierung mittels künstlicher neuronaler Netze. Diploma Thesis, University of BielefeldGoogle Scholar
  29. Dürr V (2001) Stereotypic leg searching movements in the stick insect:Kinematik analysis, behavioural context and simulation. J Exp Biol 204:1589–1604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dürr V (2005) Context-dependent changes in strength and efficacy of leg coordination mechanisms. J Exp Biol 208:2253–2267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dürr V, Ebeling W (2005) The behavioural transition from straight to curve walking: Kinetics of leg movement parameters and the initiation of turning. J Exp Biol 208:2237–2252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dürr V, Matheson T (2003) Graded limb targeting in an insect is caused by the shift of a single movement pattern. J Neurophysiol 90:1754–1765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dürr V, Schmitz J, Cruse H (2004) Behaviour-based modelling of hexapod locomotion: Linking biology and technical application. Arthropod Struct Develop 33:237–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ebeling W, Dürr V (2006) Perturbation of leg protraction causes context-dependent modulation of inter-leg coordination, but not of avoidance reflexes. J Exp Biol 209:2199–2214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Espenschied KS, Quinn RD, Beer RD, Chiel HJ (1996) Biologically-based distributed control and local reflexes improve rough terrain locomotion in a hexapod robot. Rob Auton Syst 18:59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Forssberg H (1979) Stumbling corrective reaction, a phase-dependent compensatory reaction during locomotion. J Neurophysiol 42:936–953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Frik M, Guddat M, Karatas M, Losch CD (1999) A novel approach to autonomous control of walking machines. In: Virk GS, Randall M, Howard D (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on climbing and walking robots CLAWAR 99, 13–15 September, Portsmouth. Professional Engineering Publishing Limited, Bury St. Edmunds, pp 333–342Google Scholar
  38. Full RJ, Kubow TM, Schmitt J, Holmes P, Koditscheck DE (2002) Quantifying dynamic stability and maneuverbility in legged locomotion. Integr Comp Biol 42:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gabriel J, Büschges A (2006) Control of stepping velocity in a single insect leg during walking. Philos Trans R Soc (in press)Google Scholar
  40. Giszter SF, Loeb E, Mussa-Ivaldi FA, Bizzi E (2000) Dense mapping of frog lumbar spinal cord: organization of force and muscle use. Hum Mov Sci 19:597–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Graham D (1981) Walking kinetics of the stick insect using a low-inertia, counter-balanced, pair of independent treadwheels. Biol Cybern 40:49-58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Grillner S, Deliagina TG, Ekeberg Ö, El Manira A, Hill RH, Lansner A, Orlovsky GN, Wallén P (1995) Neural networks that co-ordinate locomotion and body orientation in lamprey. TINS 18:270–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hess D, Büschges A (1997) Sensorimotor pathways involved in interjoint reflex action of an insect leg. J Neurobiol 33:891–913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hoffmann O (2005) Entwicklung und Anwendung eines Versuchsaufbaus zum Studium von Geradeaus- und Kurvenlauf der Stabheuschrecke Carausius morosus. Diploma Thesis, Universität KölnGoogle Scholar
  45. Linder CR (2002) Self organisation in a simple task of motor control. In: Hallam B, Floreano D, Meyer J-A, Hallam J (eds) Proceedings of the 7th international conference on simulation of adaptive behavior. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 185–194Google Scholar
  46. Müller U, Clarac F (1990) Dactyl sensory influences on rock lobster locomotion. I Intrasegmental and intersegmental leg reflexes during standing and walking. J Exp Biol 148:89–112Google Scholar
  47. Pearson KG, Franklin R (1984) Characteristics of leg movements and patterns of coordination in locusts walking on rough terrain. Intl J Robot Res 3:101-112Google Scholar
  48. Pfeiffer F, Eltze J, Weidemann H-J (1995) Sex-legged technical walking considering biological principles. Rob Auton Syst 14:223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pick S, Strauss R (2005) Goal-driven behavioral adaptations in gap-climbing Drosophila. Curr Biol 15:1473–1478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pike AVL, Alexander A McN (2002) The relationship between limb-segment proportions and joint kinematics for the hind limbs of quadrupedal mammals. J Zool Lond 258:427–433Google Scholar
  51. Ritzmann RE, Quinn RD, Fischer MS (2004) Convergent evolution and locomotion through complex terrain by insects, vertebrates and robots. Arthropod Struct Develop 33:361–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Siegler MSV, Burrows M (1986) Receptive fields of motor neurons underlying local tactile reflexes in the locust. J Neurosci 6:507–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Tryba AK, Ritzmann RE (2000) Multi-joint coordination during walking and foothold searching in the Blaberus Cockroach, I Kinematics and electromyograms. J Neurophysiol 83:3323–3336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Wendler G (1964) Laufen und Stehen der Stabheuschrecke, Sinnesborsten in den Beingelenken als Glieder von Regelkreisen. Z vergl Physiol 48:198-250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zakotnik J (2006) Biomechanics and neural control of targeted limb movements in an insect. Doctoral Dissertation, Faculty of Biology, University of Bielefeld, GermanyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of BiologyUniversity of BielefeldBielefeldGermany

Personalised recommendations