Journal of Classification

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 227–245 | Cite as

k-Adic Similarity Coefficients for Binary (Presence/Absence) Data

  • Matthijs J. Warrens


k-Adic formulations (for groups of objects of size k) of a variety of 2-adic similarity coefficients (for pairs of objects) for binary (presence/absence) data are presented. The formulations are not functions of 2-adic similarity coefficients. Instead, the main objective of the the paper is to present k-adic formulations that reflect certain basic characteristics of, and have a similar interpretation as, their 2-adic versions. Two major classes are distinguished. The first class is referred to as Bennani-Heiser similarity coefficients, which contains all coefficients that can be defined using just the matches, the number of attributes that are present and that are absent in k objects, and the total number of attributes. The coefficients in the second class can be formulated as functions of Dice’s association indices.


Indices of association Resemblance measures Simple matching coefficient Jaccard coefficient Dice/Sørenson coefficient Rand index Global order equivalence 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychometrics and Research Methodology Group, Leiden University Institute for Psychological ResearchLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands

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