Methodological and Philosophical Issues in Studies on Embodied Knowledge

  • Masaki SuwaEmail author


We argue that studies on embodied knowledge should deal with the process of how knowledge is learned, if we consider the essential meaning of the notion of “embodiment”. In other words, those studies are supposed to deal with the flow of time as the learner lives a life, because learning of embodied knowledge is intrinsically embedded in minds, social contexts, and life. Then, in examinations of learning embodied knowledge or skills, the rigid application of the three principles of modern science, i.e., universality, objectivity, and logicality, will hamper capturing the realities that are rich in “embodiment” aspects in living, such as subjectivity, situated-ness, peculiarity of persons, places and times, and multiplicity of meanings. The purpose of this paper is to discuss methodological and philosophical issues involved in studies on embodied knowledge. Further, we argue that one promising method of studies may be that of embodied metacognition; that enables examinations of the processes of learning involving rich aspects of “embodiment” in living. Finally, we discuss its relationship with the methodology of constructive science and with the notion of narrative approach to human practical intelligence in living people.


Embodiment Methodology of modern science Embodied metacognition Constructive science Narrative 



We want to show huge thanks to Dr. Hideyuki Nakashima, Haruyuki Fujii and, Koichi Hori for discussions on constructive science and on narrative approach in examinations of human practical intelligence of living people.


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© Ohmsha, Ltd. and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Keio UniversityFujisawaJapan

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