Turing Test Considered Mostly Harmless
- 461 Downloads
Turing’s landmark paper on computing machinery and intelligence is multifaceted and has an underemphasized ethical dimension. Turing’s notion of “intelligence” and “thinking” was far more encompassing than the common anthropocentric view may suggest. We discuss a number of open and underrated problems that the common interpretation of the Turing test as a test of machine intelligence entails. We suggest that a more meaningful question than “Can machines think?” is whether modern computing machinery can amplify human intelligence. We cite examples ranging from traditional silicon-based environments to carbon-based, living organisms in order to illustrate that this kind of intelligence amplification is indeed happening today. We conclude that in its interpretation as a test of machine intelligence, the Turing test may indeed be harmful for artificial intelligence (AI); in its wider interpretation, however, it remains an inspiring source for philosophy and AI alike.
KeywordsTuring Test Imitation Game Machine Intelligence Intelligence Amplification Creativity
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Aono M., Hara M., Aihara K., Munakata T.: “Amoeba-based emergent computing: Combinatorial optimization and autonomous meta-problem solving,”. International Journal of Unconventional Computing 6, 89–108 (2010)Google Scholar
- 3.Beckmann, B. E. and McKinley, P. K., “Evolving quorum sensing in digital organisms,” Proc. of the ACM Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, 2009.Google Scholar
- 4.Berrar, D., “Revisiting the Turing test from a statistical angle,” International Symposium on Soft Computing, Yokohama, Japan, pp. 1–4, 2012Google Scholar
- 5.Berrar D., Schuster A.: “The omnipresent computing menace to information society,”. Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics 15(7), 786–792 (2011)Google Scholar
- 6.Berrar, D., Sato, N. and Schuster, A., “Quo vadis, artificial intelligence?” Advances in Artificial Intelligence, Article ID 629869, pp. 3–12, 2010.Google Scholar
- 8.Block, N., “The mind as the software of the brain,” in An Invitation to Cognitive Science (Osherson, D. N., Gleitman, L., Kosslyn, S. M., Smith, S. and Sternberg, S., eds.), pp. 377–425, MIT Press, 1995.Google Scholar
- 9.Boden M.: The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms. Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London (1990)Google Scholar
- 12.Chomsky, N., “Turing on the imitation game,” in Parsing the Turing Test: Philosophical and Methodological Issues in the Quest for the Thinking Computer (Epstein, R., Roberts, G. and Beber, G. eds.), pp. 103–106, Springer, 2008.Google Scholar
- 13.Cohen P.R.: “If not Turing’s test, then what?,”. AI Magazine 26(4), 61–67 (2006)Google Scholar
- 15.Copeland, J. and Proudfoot, D., “Turing’s test - a philosophical and historical guide,” in Parsing the Turing Test: Philosophical and Methodological Issues in the Quest for the Thinking Computer (Epstein, R., Roberts, G. and Beber, G. eds.), pp. 119–138, Springer, 2008.Google Scholar
- 16.Cowen, T. and Dawson, M., “What does the Turing test really mean? And how many human beings (including Turing) could pass?,” George Mason University, available at http://www.gmu.edu/centers/publicchoice/facultypages/Tyler/turingfinal.pdf, accessed 20 June 2013, 2009.
- 17.Cronin L., Krasnogor N., Davis B. G., Alexander C., Robertson N., Steinke J. H. G., Schroeder S. L. M., Khlobystov A. N., Cooper G., Gardner P. M., Siepmann P., Whitaker B. J., Marsh D.: “The imitation game - a computational chemical approach to recognizing life,”. Nature Biotechnology 24(10), 1203–1206 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Hayes, P. and Ford, K., “Turing test considered harmful,” Proc. of the 14th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 972–977, 1995.Google Scholar
- 22.Hodges, A., “Alan Turing and the Turing test,” in Parsing the Turing Test: Philosophical and Methodological Issues in the Quest for the Thinking Computer (Epstein, R., Roberts, G. and Beber, G. eds.), pp. 13–22, Springer, 2008.Google Scholar
- 25.Koestler A.: The Act of Creation. Hutchinson, London (1964)Google Scholar
- 28.Martin, R. M., Philosophical Conversations, Broadview Press Ltd., 2008.Google Scholar
- 31.Nakagaki, T., Yamada, H. and Tóth, A., “Maze-solving by an amoeboid organism,” Nature, 407 (6803), 470, 2000.Google Scholar
- 33.R Development Core Team, “R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing,” R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2009. URL http://www.R-project.org. ISBN 3-900051-07-0.
- 34.Saigusa, T. and Kuramoto, Y., “Amoeba anticipate periodic events,” Physical Review Letters, 100, 1, 018101, 2008.Google Scholar
- 37.Scott, T. E., “Knowledge,” in Encyclopedia of Creativity (Pritzker, S. R. and Runco, M. A. eds.), 1, Academic Press, pp. 119–129, 1999.Google Scholar
- 39.Searle, J. R., “The Turing test: 55 years later,” in Parsing the Turing Test: Philosophical and Methodological Issues in the Quest for the Thinking Computer (Epstein, R., Roberts, G. and Beber, G. eds.), pp. 139–150, Springer, 2009.Google Scholar
- 40.Shannon, C. E. and McCarthy, J., Automata Studies, Princeton University Press, 1956.Google Scholar
- 44.Turing A. M.: “Intelligent machinery, a heretical theory,”. Philosophia Mathematica (reprinted 1996(4(3), 256–260 (1951)Google Scholar
- 45.Turing, A. M., “Can digital computers think?” Transcript (with Turing’s annotations) of a talk broadcast on BBC Third Programme, 15 May 1951, available at http://www.turingarchive.org/browse.php/B/5, accessed 20 June 2013, pp. 1–8, 1951.
- 46.Turing, A. M., Braithwaite, L. C. and Jefferson, A. A., “Can automatic calculating machine be said to think?” Transcript of a broadcast discussion transmitted on BBC Third Programme, 14 and 23 Jan. 1952, between Newman, M. H. A., Turing, A. M., Sir Geoffrey Jefferson and Braithwaite, R. B., Available online from the Turing Digital Archive, available at http://www.turingarchive.org/browse.php/B/6, accessed 20 June 2013, pp. 1–61, 1952.
- 47.Whitby, B., “The Turing test: AI’s biggest blind alley?” in Machines and Thought: The Legacy of Alan Turing (Millican, P. and Clark, A. eds.), Oxford University Press, pp. 53–62, 1996.Google Scholar