Experiments in Fluids

, 60:161 | Cite as

Liquid jet penetration and breakup in a free supersonic gas jet

  • H. Jones
  • S. MenonEmail author
Research Article


The interaction of a coherent liquid jet with a free supersonic gas jet is of importance in cooling high-temperature exhaust plumes generated by ground rocket tests. Further, the associated phenomena are distinct from the well-studied jet in supersonic crossflow due to the unbounded nature of the gas jet, its shock train structure, and the relative sizes of the two jets. This work utilizes non-intrusive diagnostics including focused color Schlieren, high-speed diffused backlit imaging, and volume-illuminated imaging to study the interaction process of a high Reynolds number water jet with a free supersonic air jet. The effect of the water jet on the shock train structure and its dependence on water injection location and pressure are studied. The ensuing water jet breakup mode is investigated and found to exhibit distinguishing characteristics from known breakup modes observed at high Reynolds and gas Weber numbers. Finally, the water jet penetration height is quantified, and the ability of existing correlations from the literature to predict the penetration height are investigated.

Graphic abstract



This work is supported by NASA EPSCoR and the Board of Regents of the state of Louisiana through the Research Award Program as well as the Graduate Student Research Assistance Award. We would like to thank Dr. Daniel Allgood from NASA Stennis Space Center for his support and collaboration as well conducting the numerical simulations whose results have been included in this work. We would also like to thank Dr. Ingmar Schoegl from LSU for use of the focusing color Schlieren apparatus developed by him and his research group.


This article was funded by Louisiana Board of Regents (Grant no. AWD-000463).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

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