Advertisement

Experiments in Fluids

, 60:158 | Cite as

Dynamic characteristics of in-nozzle flash boiling bubbles and corresponding temporal responses of external spray

  • Shangze Yang
  • Zhen Ma
  • Shengqi Wu
  • Xuesong LiEmail author
  • Min Xu
Research Article

Abstract

Flash boiling spray is believed to have the potential in further improving the efficiency of practical liquid fuel combustors. However, the complex physics of this transient, multiphase process are not fully understood. Despite improved spray breakup and atomization performance, near-nozzle flash boiling sprays also faced the challenge in cycle-to-cycle variation and fluctuation. This work aims to explore the dynamic formation, development, and aggregation of in-nozzle flash boiling bubbles to establish the connection between bubble features and external spray behaviors. In this investigation, a transparent two-dimensional nozzle was utilized for high-speed shadowgraph visualization and flash boiling sprays at various fuel temperatures (superheat degrees) were measured and investigated. Theoretical analysis was incorporated to interpret the nucleation and growth of the flash boiling bubbles. Near-field external sprays were also captured to reveal the temporal response with regard to in-nozzle flash boiling bubble structures. Results showed that the layered structure inside the nozzle had a direct impact on the oscillation on the external spray. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) was also adopted in quantifying the dominant frequency of the oscillating flash boiling sprays.

Graphic abstract

Growth of flash boiling bubble is accelerated in axial direction of the nozzle. Wavy structure of flash boiling bubbles can be found inside of the nozzle. Number of bubble layers increases with increasing fuel temperature. Fluctuation of external spray is fiercer with greater number of bubble layers.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is sponsored by Ford Motor Company (USA) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant No. 51376119/E060502. It was carried out at the National Engineering Laboratory for Automotive Electronic Control Technology of Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

References

  1. Aleiferis PG, Serras-Pereira J, Augoye A, Davies TJ, Cracknell RF, Richardson D (2010) Effect of fuel temperature on in-nozzle cavitation and spray formation of liquid hydrocarbons and alcohols from a real-size optical injector for direct-injection spark-ignition engines. Int J Heat Mass Transf 53:4588–4606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brennen CE (1995) Cavitation and bubble dynamics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgezbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Butcher AJ, Aleiferis PG, Richardson D (2013) Development of a real-size optical injector nozzle for studies of cavitation, spray formation and flash-boiling at conditions relevant to direct-injection spark-ignition engines. Int J Engine Res 14:557–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheng D-c, Burkhardt H (2006) Template-based bubble identification and tracking in image sequences. Int J Therm Sci 45:321–330.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2004.08.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gavaises M, Papoulias D, Andriotis A, Giannadakis E, Theodorakakos A (2007) Link between cavitation development and erosion damage in diesel injector nozzles. SAE Int.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-0246 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hung DLS, Harrington DL, Gandhi AH et al (2009) Gasoline fuel injector spray measurement and characterization—a new SAE J2715 recommended practice. SAE Int J Fuels Lubr 1:534–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hwang J, Park Y, Bae C, Lee J, Pyo S (2015) Fuel temperature influence on spray and combustion characteristics in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC) under simulated engine operating conditions. Fuel 160:424–433.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jones JOC (1980) Flashing inception in flowing liquids. J Heat Transfer 102:439–444.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3244319 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ju D, Huang Z, Jia X, Qiao X, Xiao J, Huang Z (2016) Macroscopic characteristics and internal flow pattern of dimethyl ether flash-boiling spray discharged through a vertical twin-orifice injector. Energy 114:1240–1250.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.08.082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kandlikar SG (1998) Heat transfer characteristics in partial boiling, fully developed boiling, and significant void flow regions of subcooled flow boiling. J Heat Transfer 120:395–401.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2824263 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lenclud J, Venart J (1994) The blowdown of pressurized containers. No. TP 12103EGoogle Scholar
  12. Li S, Zhang Y, Qi W, Xu B (2017) Quantitative observation on characteristics and breakup of single superheated droplet. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 80:305–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lubetkin SD (2003) Why is it much easier to nucleate gas bubbles than theory predicts? Langmuir 19:2575–2587.  https://doi.org/10.1021/la0266381 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Luke A, Cheng D-C (2006) High speed video recording of bubble formation with pool boiling. Int J Therm Sci 45:310–320.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2005.06.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mikic BB, Rohsenow WM, Griffith P (1970) On bubble growth rates. Int J Heat Mass Transf 13:657–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mojtabi MCN, Wigley G et al (2008) The effect of flash boiling on breakup and atomisation in GDI sprays. In: Proceedings of the 22nd European conference on liquid atomization and spray systems ILASS Europe Como Lake, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  17. Moulai M, Grover R, Parrish S, Schmidt D (2015) Internal and near-nozzle flow in a multi-hole gasoline injector under flashing and non-flashing conditions. SAE Int.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-0944 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pandal A, Pastor JM, Payri R, Schmidt D (2017) Computational and experimental investigation of interfacial area in near-field diesel spray simulation. SAE Int J Fuels Lubr 10:423–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Park BS, Lee SY (1994) An experimental investigation of the flash atomization mechanism. Atomization Sprays 4:159–179.  https://doi.org/10.1615/AtomizSpr.v4.i2.30 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Park Y, Hwang J, Bae C, Kim K, Lee J, Pyo S (2015) Effects of diesel fuel temperature on fuel flow and spray characteristics. Fuel 162:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.09.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Patterson MA, Reitz RD (1998) Modeling the effects of fuel spray characteristics on diesel engine combustion and emission. SAE Trans 107:27–43Google Scholar
  22. Polanco G, Holdø AE, Munday G (2010) General review of flashing jet studies. J Hazard Mater 173:2–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.08.138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schulz F, Beyrau F (2017) The influence of flash-boiling on spray-targeting and fuel film formation. Fuel 208:587–594.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.07.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Senda J, Hojyo Y, Fujimoto H (2004) Modelling of atomization and vaporization process in flash boiling spray. SAE Int.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-0534 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Senda J, Wada Y, Kawano D, Fujimoto H (2008) Improvement of combustion and emissions in diesel engines by means of enhanced mixture formation based on flash boiling of mixed fuel. Int J Engine Res 9:15–27.  https://doi.org/10.1243/14680874jer02007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Serras-Pereira J, Van Romunde Z, Aleiferis PG, Richardson D, Wallace S, Cracknell RF (2010) Cavitation, primary break-up and flash boiling of gasoline, iso-octane and n-pentane with a real-size optical direct-injection nozzle. Fuel 89:2592–2607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. She J (2010) Experimental study on improvement of diesel combustion and emissions using flash boiling injection. SAE Int.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-0341 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shen S, Che Z, Wang T, Jia M, Sun K (2017) Numerical study on flash boiling spray of multi-hole injector. SAE Int J Fuels Lubr 10:369–379.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-0841 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sher E, Bar-Kohany T, Rashkovan A (2008) Flash-boiling atomization. Prog Energy Combust Sci 34:417–439.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2007.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang Z, Dai X, Liu F, Li Z, Wu H (2018) Breakup of fuel sprays under cavitating and flash boiling conditions. Appl Therm Eng 143:22–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.07.090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wu S, Pan H, Xu M, Hung D, Li T (2016) Investigation of rapid atomization and collapse of superheated liquid fuel spray under superheated conditions. Atom Sprays 26:1361–1384.  https://doi.org/10.1615/atomizspr.2016014231 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wu S, Xu M, Hung DLS, Pan H (2017a) Effects of nozzle configuration on internal flow and primary jet breakup of flash boiling fuel sprays. Int J Heat Mass Transf 110:730–738.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2017.03.073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wu S, Xu M, Hung DLS, Pan H (2017b) In-nozzle flow investigation of flash boiling fuel sprays. Appl Therm Eng 117:644–651.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.12.105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xu J, Chen T, Yang L (1995) Two-phase critical discharge of initially saturated or subcooled water flowing in sharp-edged tubes at high pressure. J Therm Sci 4:193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xu M, Zhang Y, Zeng W, Zhang G, Zhang M (2013) Flash boiling: easy and better way to generate ideal sprays than the high injection pressure. SAE Int J Fuels Lubr 6:137–148.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-1614 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xu Q, Pan H, Gao Y, Li X, Xu M (2019) Investigation of two-hole flash-boiling plume-to-plume interaction and its impact on spray collapse. Int J Heat Mass Transf 138:608–619.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.04.111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yang J, Dong X, Wu Q, Xu M (2018a) Influence of flash boiling spray on the combustion characteristics of a spark-ignition direct-injection optical engine under cold start. Combust Flame 188:66–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2017.09.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yang S, Li X, Hung DLS, Xu M (2018b) Characteristics and correlation of nozzle internal flow and jet breakup under flash boiling conditions. Int J Heat Mass Transf 127:959–969.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.07.109 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yang S, Li X, Hung DLS, Arai M, Xu M (2019) In-nozzle flash boiling flow of multi-component fuel and its effect on near-nozzle spray. Fuel 252:55–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.04.104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zeng Y, Lee C-FF (2001) An atomization model for flash boiling sprays. Combust Sci Technol 169:45–67.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00102200108907839 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zeng W, Xu M, Zhang G, Zhang Y, Cleary DJ (2012) Atomization and vaporization for flash-boiling multi-hole sprays with alcohol fuels. Fuel 95:287–297.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.08.048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zeng W, Xu M, Zhang Y, Wang Z (2013) Laser sheet dropsizing of evaporating sprays using simultaneous LIEF/MIE techniques. Proc Combust Inst 34:1677–1685.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2012.07.061 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang G, Hung DLS, Xu M (2014) Experimental study of flash boiling spray vaporization through quantitative vapor concentration and liquid temperature measurements. Exp Fluids 55:1804.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-014-1804-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang X, He Z, Wang Q et al (2018) Effect of fuel temperature on cavitation flow inside vertical multi-hole nozzles and spray characteristics with different nozzle geometries. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 91:374–387.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2017.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shangze Yang
    • 1
  • Zhen Ma
    • 1
  • Shengqi Wu
    • 2
  • Xuesong Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Min Xu
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations