Experiments in Fluids

, 60:65 | Cite as

Investigating \(\hbox {SO}_2\) transfer across the air–water interface via LIF

  • Sonja I. FrimanEmail author
  • Bernd Jähne
Research Article


A laser-induced fluorescence technique to measure vertical concentration profiles of the tracer sulfur dioxide above the air–water interface is presented. The imaging technique is capable of recording profiles at a rate of up to 40 Hz with a sufficiently high spatial resolution to resolve the profile within the viscous boundary layer in the air at the air–water interface. The new technique was tested in a small wind-wave facility under invasion conditions with an initial concentration of 100 ppm in the air at estimated wind speeds \(u_{10}\) of 0.7–3 m/s, corresponding to friction velocities between 2.4 and 9.3 cm/s. The laser used for fluorescence excitation has a wavelength of 223.7 nm. In this work, a proof of principle is presented as well as a first evaluation of the capabilities and uncertainties of the technique. The new technique enables a detailed study of the transport processes in the air-sided boundary layer at a wavy interface including the gas transfer velocity, turbulent concentration fluctuations, and the partitioning of gas transfer between air and water.

Graphical abstract



We are very grateful to Xiton Photonics (Kaiserslautern, Germany) for providing an Impress 224 laser employed in the setup presented here free of charge for this pilot study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environmental PhysicsHeidelberg UniversityHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Heidelberg Collaboratory for Image Processing (HCI)Heidelberg UniversityHeidelbergGermany

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