Advertisement

Experiments in Fluids

, 60:65 | Cite as

Investigating \(\hbox {SO}_2\) transfer across the air–water interface via LIF

  • Sonja I. FrimanEmail author
  • Bernd Jähne
Research Article
  • 53 Downloads

Abstract

A laser-induced fluorescence technique to measure vertical concentration profiles of the tracer sulfur dioxide above the air–water interface is presented. The imaging technique is capable of recording profiles at a rate of up to 40 Hz with a sufficiently high spatial resolution to resolve the profile within the viscous boundary layer in the air at the air–water interface. The new technique was tested in a small wind-wave facility under invasion conditions with an initial concentration of 100 ppm in the air at estimated wind speeds \(u_{10}\) of 0.7–3 m/s, corresponding to friction velocities between 2.4 and 9.3 cm/s. The laser used for fluorescence excitation has a wavelength of 223.7 nm. In this work, a proof of principle is presented as well as a first evaluation of the capabilities and uncertainties of the technique. The new technique enables a detailed study of the transport processes in the air-sided boundary layer at a wavy interface including the gas transfer velocity, turbulent concentration fluctuations, and the partitioning of gas transfer between air and water.

Graphical abstract

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful to Xiton Photonics (Kaiserslautern, Germany) for providing an Impress 224 laser employed in the setup presented here free of charge for this pilot study.

References

  1. Asher WE (2009) The effects of experimental uncertainty in parameterizing air-sea gas exchange using tracer experiment data. Atmos Chem Phys 9(1):131–139.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-131-2009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baumann KH, Mühlfriedel K (2001) Mass transfer and concentration profiles near phase boundaries. Int J Ther Sci 40(5):425–436.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1290-0729(01)01232-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belton MJS (1982) An interpretation of the near-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of SO\(_2\): implications for Venus, Io, and laboratory measurements. Icarus 52(1):149–165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0019-1035(82)90175-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bopp M (2018) Air-flow and stress partitioning over wind waves in a linear wind-wave facility. PhD thesis, Institute for Environmental Physics, Heidelberg University.  https://doi.org/10.11588/heidok.00024741
  5. Buckley MP, Veron F (2018) The turbulent airflow over wind generated surface waves. Eur J Mech B-Fluid.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euromechflu.2018.04.003 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. Danielache SO, Eskebjerg C, Johnson MS, Ueno Y, Yoshida N (2008) High-precision spectroscopy of \(^{32}\)S, \(^{33}\)S, and \(^{34}\)S sulfur dioxide: Ultraviolet absorption cross sections and isotope effects. J Geophys Res-Atmos 113:D17.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009695 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deacon EL (1977) Gas transfer to and across an air-water interface. Tellus A 29:363–374.  https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v29i4.11368 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. EMVA 1288 Working Group (2016) EMVA Standard 1288 - standard for characterization of image sensors and cameras, release 3.1. open standard. European Machine Vision Association.  https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.235942
  9. Friedl F (2013) Investigating the transfer of oxygen at the wavy air–water interface under wind-induced turbulence. PhD thesis, Institute for Environmental Physics, Heidelberg University.  https://doi.org/10.11588/heidok.00014582
  10. Herlina, Jirka GH (2008) Experiments on gas transfer at the air-water interface induced by oscillating grid turbulence. J Fluid Mech 594:183–208.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112007008968 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Hiby JW (1983) The chemical indicator: a tool for the investigation of concentration fields in liquid. Ann NY Acad Sci 404:348–349.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1983.tb19494.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Honza R, Ding CP, Dreizler A, Böhm B (2017) Flame imaging using planar laser induced fluorescence of sulfur dioxide. Appl Phys B 123(9):246.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-017-6823-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hui M, Rice SA (1972) Decay of fluorescence from single vibronic states of SO\(_2\). Chem Phys Lett 17(4):474–478.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2614(72)85083-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jähne B (2019) Air–sea gas exchange. In: Cochran JK, Bokuniewicz H, Yager P (eds) Encyclopedia of ocean sciences, 3rd edn. Academic Press, Amsterdam. https://www.elsevier.com/books/encyclopedia-of-ocean-sciences/cochran/978-0-12-813081-0 Google Scholar
  15. Kadoya K, Matsunaga N, Nagashima A (1985) Viscosity and thermal conductivity of dry air in the gaseous phase. J Phys Chem Ref Data 14(4):947–970.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555744 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krah N (2014) Visualization of air and water-sided concentration profiles in laboratory gas exchange experiments. PhD thesis, Institute for Environmental Physics, Heidelberg University.  https://doi.org/10.11588/heidok.00016895
  17. Kräuter C (2011) Aufteilung des Transferwiderstands zwischen Luft und Wasser beim Austausch flüchtiger Substanzen mittlerer Löslichkeit zwischen Ozean und Atmosphäre. Master’s thesis, Institute for Environmental Physics, Heidelberg University.  https://doi.org/10.11588/heidok.00013010
  18. Mackay D, Yeun ATK (1983) Mass transfer coefficient correlations for volatilization of organic solutes from water. Environ Sci Technol 17(4):211–217.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es00110a006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Manatt SL, Lane AL (1993) A compilation of the absorption cross-sections of SO2 from 106 to 403 nm. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat 50(3):267–276.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4073(93)90077-U CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Matsumi Y, Shigemori H, Takahashi K (2005) Laser-induced fluorescence instrument for measuring atmospheric SO\(_2\). Atmos Environ 39(17):3177–3185.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.02.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mesarchaki E, Kräuter C, Krall KE, Bopp M, Helleis F, Williams J, Jähne B (2015) Measuring air-sea gas-exchange velocities in a large-scale annular wind-wave tank. Ocean Sci 11:121–138.  https://doi.org/10.5194/os-11-121-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Münsterer T (1996) LIF investigation of the mechanisms controlling air–water mass transfer at a free interface. PhD thesis, Institute for Environmental Physics, Heidelberg University.  https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.14542
  23. Münsterer T, Jähne B (1998) LIF measurements of concentration profiles in the aqueous mass boundary layer. Exp Fluids 25:190–196.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s003480050223 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reichardt H (1951) Vollständige Darstellung der turbulenten Geschwindigkeitsverteilung in glatten Leitungen. Z Angew Math Mech 31:208–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rollins AW, Thornberry TD, Ciciora SJ, McLaughlin RJ, Watts LA, Hanisco TF, Baumann E, Giorgetta FR, Bui TV, Fahey DW, Gao RS (2016) A laser-induced fluorescence instrument for aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Atm Meas Tech 9(9):4601–4613.  https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-4601-2016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schulz HE, Janzen JG (2009) Concentration fields near air-water interfaces during interfacial mass transport: oxygen transport and random square wave analysis. Braz J Chem Eng 26:527–536.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-66322009000300008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sick V (2002) Exhaust-gas imaging via planar laser- induced fluorescence of sulfur dioxide. Appl Phys B-Lasers O 74:461–463.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s003400200813 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Simeonsson JB, Matta A, Boddeti R (2012) Direct measurement of SO\(_2\) in air by laser induced fluorescence spectrometry using a nontunable laser source. Anal Lett 45(8):894–906.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719.2012.655681 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Thurber MC, Grisch F, Kirby BJ, Votsmeier M, Hanson RK (1998) Measurements and modeling of acetone laser-induced fluorescence with implications for temperature-imaging diagnostics. Appl Optics 37(21):4963–4978.  https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.37.004963 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Walker JW, Peirson WL (2008) Measurement of gas transfer across wind-forced wavy air–water interfaces using laser-induced fluorescence. Exp Fluids 44:249–259.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-007-0398-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Warken P (2010) Hochauflösende LIF-Methode zur Messung von Sauerstoffkonzentrationsprofilen in der wasserseitigen Grenzschicht. Diploma thesis, Heidelberg University.  https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2560318
  32. Woodrow PT, Duke SR (2001) Laser-induced fluorescence studies of oxygen transfer across unsheared flat and wavy air–water interfaces. Ind Eng Chem Res 40(8):1985–1995.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie000321j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wu CYR, Yang BW, Chen FZ, Judge DL, Caldwell J, Trafton LM (2000) Measurements of high-, room-, and low-temperature photoabsorption cross sections of SO\(_2\) in the 2080- to 2950-Å region, with application to Io. Icarus 145(1):289–296.  https://doi.org/10.1006/icar.1999.6322 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yaws CL (2014) Transport properties of chemicals and hydrocarbons. Gulf Professional Publishing.  https://doi.org/10.1016/C2013-0-12644-X

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environmental PhysicsHeidelberg UniversityHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Heidelberg Collaboratory for Image Processing (HCI)Heidelberg UniversityHeidelbergGermany

Personalised recommendations