Advertisement

Experiments in Fluids

, 60:60 | Cite as

PIV-based characterization of puffs in transitional pipe flow

  • K. J. WintersEmail author
  • E. K. Longmire
Research Article
  • 15 Downloads

Abstract

High frame rate stereo-PIV was conducted on circular cross sections of pipe flow to examine velocity variations inside turbulent puffs. A registration method was developed to recognize strong ejections of fluid from the wall near a puff’s trailing edge, and the method was employed to determine ensemble averages of multiple puff occurrences. Both individual puff reconstructions and the ensemble average revealed that these ejections were accompanied consistently by a hairpin vortex that was, in turn, frequently part of a streamwise-aligned hairpin sequence. This sequence is associated with a region that starts near the wall one diameter upstream of the puff’s trailing edge and spreads to the center of the pipe at the trailing edge before shrinking back towards the wall over the next three diameters downstream. The sequence is accompanied by additional hairpins and disturbances that extend over the pipe cross section already by the trailing-edge location. The puff data were used also to search for azimuthal modal patterns within streamwise velocity variations. These modal patterns were shown to be a robust feature of experimental puffs. Upstream patterns were typically disrupted by the trailing edge ejection and hairpin, resulting in downstream patterns of different mode and character. On average, modal patterns existed over longer distances than those identified previously in numerical simulations.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge support from Nanodispersions Technology and the National Science Foundation (CBET 1605719).

References

  1. Avila K, Moxey D, de Lozar A, Avila M, Barkley D, Hof B (2011) The onset of turbulence in pipe flow. Science 333(6039):192–196.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1203223 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandyopadhyay PR (1986) Aspects of the equilibrium puff in transitional pipe flow. J Fluid Mech 163:439–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barkley D (2016) Theoretical perspective on the route to turbulence in a pipe. J Fluid Mech 803:1MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cerbus RT, Cc Liu, Gioia G, Chakraborty P (2018) Laws of resistance in transitional pipe flows. Phys Rev Lett 120:054502.  https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.054502 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Darbyshire AG, Mullin T (1995) Transition to turbulence in constant-mass-flux pipe flow. J Fluid Mech 289:83–114.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112095001248 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Duguet Y, Willis AP, Kerswell RR (2010) Slug genesis in cylindrical pipe flow. J Fluid Mech 663:180–208.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112010003435 MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Faisst H, Eckhardt B (2003) Travelling waves in pipe flow. Phys Rev Lett 91:224502.  https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.224502 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hof B, van Doorne CWH, Westerweel J, Nieuwstadt FTM, Faisst H, Eckhardt B, Wedin H, Kerswell RR, Waleffe F (2004) Experimental observation of nonlinear traveling waves in turbulent pipe flow. Science 305(5690):1594–1598.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1100393 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hof B, van Doorne CW, Westerweel J, Nieuwstadt F (2005) Turbulence regeneration in pipe flow at moderate reynolds numbers. Phys Rev Lett 95:214502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Holzner M, Song B, Avila M, Hof B (2013) Lagrangian approach to laminar-turbulent iinterface in transitional pipe flow. J Fluid Mech 723:140–162MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kuik D (2011) Localized turbulence in pipe flow. PhD thesis, TU DelftGoogle Scholar
  12. Mullin T (2010) Experimental studies of transition to turbulence in a pipe. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 43:1–24MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Reynolds O (1883) An experimental investigation of the circumstances which determine whether the motion of water shall be direct or sinuous, and of the law of resistance in parallel channels. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 17:935–982zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. Shimizu M, Kida S (2009) A driving mechanism of a turbulent puff in a pipe flow. Fluid Dyn Res 41:045501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Song B, Barkley D, Hof B, Avila M (2017) Speed and structure of turbulent fronts in pipe flow. J Fluid Mech 813:1045–1059MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. van Doorne CWH (2004) Stereoscopic PIV on transition in pipe flow. PhD thesis, TU DelftGoogle Scholar
  17. van Doorne CWH, Westerweel J (2007) Measurement of laminar, transition and turbulent pipe flow using stereoscopic-PIV. Exp Fluids 42:259–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. van Doorne CWH, Westerweel J (2009) The flow structure of a puff. Philos Trans R Soc A 367:489–507MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wedin H, Kerswell R (2004) Exact coherent structures in pipe flow: travelling wave solutions. J Fluid Mech 508:333–371MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Westerweel J, Scarano F (2005) Universal outlier detection for PIV data. Exp Fluids 39(6):1096–1100.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-005-0016-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Westerweel J, Draad AA, van der Hoeven JGT, van Oord J (1996) Measurement of fully-developed turbulent pipe flow with digital particle and image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 20:165–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Willis AP, Kerswell R (2008) Coherent structures in localized and global pipe turbulence. Phys Rev Let 100:124501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wygnanski I, Champagne FH (1973) On transition in a pipe. Part 1. The orgin of puffs and slugs and the flow in a turbulent slug. J Fluid Mech 59:281–335.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112073001576 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wygnanski I, Sokolov M, Friedman D (1975) On transition in a pipe. Part 2. The and equilibrium puff. J Fluid Mech 69:283–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhou J, Adrian RJ, Balachandar S, Kendall TM (1999) Mechanisms for generating coherent and packets of hairpin vortices in channel flow. J Fluid Mech 387:353–396MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Aerospace Engineering and MechanicsUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations