Advertisement

Experiments in Fluids

, 59:117 | Cite as

Modelling of the breakup process of viscous fluids by a high-speed rotary atomizer

  • Maximilian KuhnhennEmail author
  • Max F. Luh
  • Tórstein V. Joensen
  • Mads Reck
  • Ilia V. Roisman
  • Cameron Tropea
Research Article

Abstract

Spray drying is a preferred method of drying and successful agglomeration of various materials and is widely used in the chemical, food, pharmaceutical and in the power industry, e.g. to produce polymers, dairy products, foodstuff, pharmaceutics or for flue gas cleaning, etc. In spray drying applications very often rotary atomizers are used for atomization of highly viscous and rheologically complex liquids. The resultant droplet size distribution has to be adapted to customer needs, since it directly influences the resultant powder size distribution and the morphology, porosity and packing density of the powder particles. In the present experimental and theoretical study, the size and the velocity of drops generated by a rotary atomizer is measured using a phase Doppler instrument for Newtonian liquids of different viscosities. A theoretical model is developed for the liquid flow through the radial openings of the atomizer wheel, considering a thin annular film flow and a rivulet-type flow. These two types of flow have also been observed in the experiments. Finally, a semi-empirical model for the average diameter of drops in the spray is developed, accounting for the different mechanisms of atomization of the rivulet and the thin film flows.

Graphical abstract

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is partly funded by the Innovation Fund Denmark (IFD) under File no. 4135-00129B. The authors would like to thank Prof. Peter Walzel for numerous fruitful discussions.

Supplementary material

348_2018_2573_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (277 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (pdf 276 KB)

References

  1. Albrecht H, Damaschke N, Borys M, Tropea C (2002) Laser Doppler and phase Doppler measurement techniques. Springer, Berlin.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-05165-8 Google Scholar
  2. Ashgriz N (2011) Handbook of atomization and sprays: theory and applications. Springer, New York.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-7264-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker C (1997) Industrial Drying of Foods. Blackie Academic and Professional, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bansode S, Banarjee S, Gaikwad D, Jadhav S, Thorat R (2010) Microencapsulation: a review. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 1(2):38–43Google Scholar
  5. Bruin S (1969) Velocity distribution in a liquid film flowing over a rotating conical surface. Chem Eng Sci 24(11):1647–1654.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(69)87029-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cayley GR, Etheridge P, Griffiths DC, Phillips FT, Pye BJ, Scott GC (1984) A review of the performance of electrostatically charged rotary atomisers on different crops. Ann Appl Biol 105(2):379–386.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1984.tb03062.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clift R, Gauvin W (1971) Motion of particles in turbulent gas streams. Brit Chem Eng 16(2–3):229Google Scholar
  8. Clift R, Grace JR, Weber ME (2005) Bubbles, drops, and particles. Courier Corporation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Dahm WJA, Patel PR, Lerg BH (2006) Analysis of liquid breakup regimes in fuel slinger atomization. Atom Sprays 16(8):945–962.  https://doi.org/10.1615/AtomizSpr.v16.i8.60 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dombrowski N, Munday G (1968) Spray drying. Biochem Biol Eng Sci 2:209–320Google Scholar
  11. Domnick J, Thieme M (2006) Atomization characteristics of high-speed rotary bell atomizers. Atom Sprays 16(8):857–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Glahn A, Blair MF, Allard KL, Busam S, Schafer O, Wittig S (2003) Disintegration of oil films emerging from radial holes in a rotating cylinder. J Eng Gas Turbines Power Trans ASME 125(4):1011–1020.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1586311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gorse P, Busam S, Dullenkopf K (2004) Influence of operating condition and geometry on the oil film thickness in aeroengine bearing chambers. J Eng Gas Turbines Power Trans ASME 128(1):103–110.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1924485 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hinze J, Milborn H (1950) Atomization of liquids by means of a rotating cup. J Appl Mech Trans ASME 17(2):145–153Google Scholar
  15. Huang L, Kumar K, Mujumdar AS (2004) Simulation of a spray dryer fitted with a rotary disk atomizer using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model. Dry Technol 22(6):1489–1515.  https://doi.org/10.1081/DRT-120038737 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jenekhe SA (1984) Effects of solvent mass transfer on flow of polymer solutions on a flat rotating disk. Ind Eng Chem Fundam 23(4):425–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Krug BM, Höfler C, Bauer HJ (2016) Numerical investigation of the liquid atomisation at rotating holes using the volume-of-fluid method. In: ILASS - Europe 2016, 27th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, 4–7 Sep 2016, Brighton, UKGoogle Scholar
  18. Kuhnhenn M, Joensen TV, Reck M, Roisman IV, Tropea C (2017) Study of the internal flow in a rotary atomizer and its influence on the properties of the resulting spray. Int J Multiph Flow.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2017.11.019
  19. Lefebvre AH, McDonell VG (2017) Atomization and sprays. CRC Press, Boca Raton.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315120911 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu H (1999) Science and engineering of droplets: fundamentals and applications. William Andrew, NorwichGoogle Scholar
  21. Masters K (1979) Spray drying handbook, 3rd edn. Halsted Press, New York.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690260430 Google Scholar
  22. Masters K (1994) Scale-up of spray dryers. Dry Technol 12(1–2):235–257.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07373939408959955 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Matsumoto S, Saito K, Takashima Y (1974) The thickness of a viscous liquid film on a rotating disk. J Chem Eng Jpn 6(6):503–507.  https://doi.org/10.1252/jcej.6.503 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Matsumoto S, Takashima Y, Kamiya T, Kayano A, Ohta Y (1982) Film thickness of a bingham liquid on a rotating disk. Ind Eng Chem Fundam 21(3):198–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mescher A, Littringer E, Paus R, Urbanetz N, Walzel P (2012) Homogene produkteigenschaften in der sprhtrocknung durch laminare rotationszerstubung homogeneous product quality in spray drying with laminar operated rotary atomizers. Chem Ing Tech 84(1–2):154–159.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cite.201100155 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mujumdar AS (2014) Handbook of industrial drying. CRC Press, Boca Raton.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07373938808916399 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Parkin CS, Siddiqui HA (1990) Measurement of drop spectra from rotary cage aerial atomizers. Crop Prot 9(1):33–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-2194(90)90043-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Peighambardoust SH, Golshan Tafti A, Hesari J (2011) Application of spray drying for preservation of lactic acid starter cultures: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 22(5):215–224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2011.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schröder T, Walzel P (1998) Design of laminar operating rotary atomizers under consideration of the detachment geometry. Chem Eng Technol 21(4):349–354.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-4125(199804)21:4<349::AID-CEAT349<3.0.CO;2-9
  30. Teske ME, Hewitt AJ, Mickle RE (2001) The measurement of droplet size distributions from rotary atomizers, vol 21. In: ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, pp 197–209.  https://doi.org/10.1520/STP10729S
  31. Tropea C, Xu TH, Onofri F, Gréhan G, Haugen P, Stieglmeier M (1996) Dual-mode phase-doppler anemometer. Part Part Syst Charact 13(2):165–170.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ppsc.19960130216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Woo MW, Daud WRW, Mujumdar AS, Wu Z, Meor Talib MZ, Tasirin SM (2008) CFD evaluation of droplet drying models in a spray dryer fitted with a rotary atomizer. Dry Technol 26(10):1180–1198.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07373930802306953 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ye Q, Shen B, Tiedje O, Bauernhansl T, Domnick J (2015) Numerical and experimental study of spray coating using air-assisted high-pressure atomizers. Atom Sprays 25(8):643–656.  https://doi.org/10.1615/AtomizSpr.2015010791 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhao Y (2004) Analysis of flow development in centrifugal atomization: Part I. Film thickness of a fully spreading melt. Model Simul Mater Sci Eng 12(5):959CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Fluid Mechanics and AerodynamicsTechnische Universität DarmstadtGriesheimGermany
  2. 2.GEA Process Engineering A/SSøborgDenmark

Personalised recommendations