Experiments in Fluids

, 59:108 | Cite as

Experimental analysis of transonic buffet on a 3D swept wing using fast-response pressure-sensitive paint

  • Yosuke Sugioka
  • Shunsuke Koike
  • Kazuyuki Nakakita
  • Daiju Numata
  • Taku Nonomura
  • Keisuke Asai
Research Article


Transonic buffeting phenomena on a three-dimensional swept wing were experimentally analyzed using a fast-response pressure-sensitive paint (PSP). The experiment was conducted using an 80%-scaled NASA Common Research Model in the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) 2 m × 2 m Transonic Wind Tunnel at a Mach number of 0.85 and a chord Reynolds number of 1.54 × 106. The angle of attack was varied between 2.82° and 6.52°. The calculation of root-mean-square (RMS) pressure fluctuations and spectral analysis were performed on measured unsteady PSP images to analyze the phenomena under off-design buffet conditions. We found that two types of shock behavior exist. The first is a shock oscillation characterized by the presence of “buffet cells” formed at a bump Strouhal number St of 0.3–0.5, which is observed under all off-design conditions. This phenomenon arises at the mid-span wing and is propagated spanwise from inboard to outboard. The other is a large spatial amplitude shock oscillation characterized by low-frequency broadband components at St < 0.1, which appears at higher angles of attack (α ≥ 6.0°) and behaves more like two-dimensional buffet. The transition between these two shock behaviors correlates well with the rapid increase of the wing-root strain fluctuation RMS.

List of symbols


PSP calibration coefficient


Lift coefficient


Pitching moment coefficient


Pressure coefficient


RMS pressure fluctuations

\(C_{P}^{\prime }\)

Dynamic component of pressure coefficient


Coherence of the cross-spectrum


PSP emission intensity


Free-stream Mach number


Local Mach number


Number of data points




Total pressure


Power spectral density


Reynolds number


Auto-spectrum of X and Y


Cross-spectrum between X and Y


Strouhal number (= fcmac/U)




Free-stream velocity


Convection velocity


Span length


Chord length


Mean aerodynamic chord length




Frame rate of the camera


Roughness height




Model chordwise location


Model spanwise location


Frequency resolution for FFT analysis


Angle of attack


Phase shift of the cross-spectrum


Spanwise location normalized by the half-span length


Reduced frequency (= 2πfc/U)


Spanwise wavelength





Reference condition, 100 kPa



The authors wish to thank the members of the Next Generation Aeronautical Innovation Hub Center and Wind Tunnel Technology Center, JAXA, for their kind preparation and operation of the wind-tunnel test. We gratefully acknowledge helpful discussions with Mr. Tsutomu Nakajima, Dr. Makoto Ueno, and Mr. Kodai Hiura. TiO2 samples used for the PSP binder were provided by Tayca Corporation. The present study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant number JP16J02503.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (MP4 2726 KB)

Supplementary material 2 (MP4 4921 KB)

Supplementary material 3 (MP4 2898 KB)

Supplementary material 4 (MP4 5026 KB)

Supplementary material 5 (MP4 2826 KB)

Supplementary material 6 (MP4 5095 KB)

348_2018_2565_MOESM7_ESM.pdf (123 kb)
Supplementary material 7 (PDF 122 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yosuke Sugioka
    • 1
  • Shunsuke Koike
    • 2
  • Kazuyuki Nakakita
    • 2
  • Daiju Numata
    • 1
  • Taku Nonomura
    • 1
  • Keisuke Asai
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Aerospace Engineering, Graduate School of EngineeringTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  2. 2.Aeronautical Technology Directorate, Japan Aerospace Exploration AgencyChofuJapan

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