Experiments in Fluids

, 59:93 | Cite as

Spatio-temporal patterns of sediment particle movement on 2D and 3D bedforms

  • Ryota TsubakiEmail author
  • Sándor Baranya
  • Marian Muste
  • Yuji Toda
Research Article


An experimental study was conducted to explore sediment particle motion in an open channel and its relationship to bedform characteristics. High-definition submersed video cameras were utilized to record images of particle motion over a dune’s length scale. Image processing was conducted to account for illumination heterogeneity due to bedform geometric irregularity and light reflection at the water’s surface. Identification of moving particles using a customized algorithm was subsequently conducted and then the instantaneous velocity distribution of sediment particles was evaluated using particle image velocimetry. Obtained experimental results indicate that the motion of sediment particles atop dunes differs depending on dune geometry (i.e., two-dimensional or three-dimensional, respectively). Sediment motion and its relationship to dune shape and dynamics are also discussed.



We acknowledge the critical support offered by graduate students H. Xu and H-W. Tsai in conducting laboratory experiments. Valuable practical inputs were received from B. Barquist and J. Niemeyer in assembling various in-house developed components. The first author is grateful to participants at IIHR seminars where he introduced some portions of this study. His effort was partially funded by grants from the Chugoku Civil Engineering Foundation for Mutual Aid, Japan; the Foundation for River and Watershed Environment Management, Japan; and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP17K06574 and JP17K06575. Collected and processed laboratory data are available from the corresponding author. The second author acknowledges the support of the ÚNKP-17-4/III, from the New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities, Hungary.


  1. Abraham D, Kuhnle RA, Odgaard AJ (2011) Validation of bed-load transport measurements with time-sequenced bathymetric data. J Hydraul Eng 137(7):723–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bennett SJ, Best JL (1995) Mean flow and turbulence structure over fixed, two-dimensional dunes: implications for sediment transport and bedform stability. Sedimentology 42:491–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Best JL (2005). The fluid dynamics of river dunes: a review and some future research directions, J Geophys Res 110:F04S02. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cabral B, Leedom LC (1993) Imaging vector fields using line integral convolution. In: Proceedings of the 20th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, annual conference series, New York, NY, USA, pp 263–270Google Scholar
  5. Cecchetto M, Tregnaghi M, Bottacin-Busolin A, Tait S, Marion A (2016) Statistical description on the role of turbulence and grain interference on particle entrainment from gravel beds. J Hydraul Eng 143(1):06016021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chichibu K, Watanabe Y, Shimizu Y (2008) New imaging technique for measuring fluid and solid velocities in sand-laden flows over dunes in an open channel. In: Proc. of 5th IAHR symposium on river, coastal and estuarine morphodynamics (RCEM 2007), TwenteGoogle Scholar
  7. Cizmas PG, Palacios A, O’Brien T, Syamlal M (2003) Proper-orthogonal decomposition of spatio-temporal patterns in fluidized beds. Chem Eng Sci 58(19):4417–4427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Constantinescu G, Balachandran R, Abad J, Li D (2017) Identification of coherent structures, sect. 6.14 in experimental hydraulics, vol I. In: Muste M, Lyn DA, Admiraal DM, Ettema R, Nikora V, Garcia MH (eds) Taylor & Francis, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Detert M, Weitbrecht V, Jirka GH (2010) Laboratory measurements on turbulent pressure fluctuations in and above gravel beds. J Hydraul Eng 136(10):779–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dinehart RL (2002) Bedform movement recorded by sequential single-beam surveys in tidal rivers. J Hydrol 258(1):25–39. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Engel P, Lau YL (1981) Bed load discharge coefficient. J Hydraul Div 107(11):1445–1454Google Scholar
  12. Feng LH, Wang JJ, Pan C (2011) Proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of vortex dynamics of a circular cylinder under synthetic jet control. Phys Fluids 23(1):014106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Giri S, Shimizu Y (2006) Numerical computation of sand dune migration with free surface flow. Water Resour Res 42:W10422. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gray JR, Laronne JB, Marr JD (2010). Bedload-surrogate monitoring technologies, US Geol. Surv. scientific investigations report no. 2010-5091). US Geological Survey, p 37Google Scholar
  15. Gunawan B, Sun X, Sterling M, Shiono K, Tsubaki R, Rameshwaran P, Knight DK, Chandler JH, Tang X, Fujita I (2012) The application of LS-PIV to a small irregular river for inbank and overbank flows. Flow Meas Instrum 24:1–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heath RE, Brown GL, Little CD, Pratt TC, Ratcliff JJ, Abraham DD, Perkey D, Ganesh NB, Martin K, May DP (2015) Old river control complex sedimentation investigation. Engineer Research and Development Center/Coastal and Hydraulics Lab. (ERDC/CHL) technical report no. TR-15-8)Google Scholar
  17. Hilberg D, Lazik W, Fiedler HE (1994) The application of classical POD and snapshot POD in a turbulent shear layer with periodic structures. Appl Sci Res 53(3):283–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kadota A, Nezu I (1999) Three-dimensional structure of space-time correlation on coherent vortices generated behind dune crest. J Hydraul Res 37(1):59–80. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kolehmainen J, Elfvengen J, Saarenrinne P (2014) Interference-based overlapping particle tracking velocimetry for fluidized beds, Exp Fluids 55:1825. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Koseki H, Yorozuya A, Kudo S, Kitsuda T, Iwami Y (2017) Measurement of shear velocity and bed load discharge. In: 2nd International workshop on sediment bypass tunnels, FP31, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  21. Kostaschuk RA, Church MA, Luternauer JL (1989) Bedforms, bed material, and bedload transport in a salt-wedge estuary: Fraser River, British Columbia. Can J Earth Sci 26(7):1440–1452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maddux TB, Nelson JM, McLean SR (2003a) Turbulent flow over three-dimensional dunes: 1. Free surface and flow response. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 108:F1Google Scholar
  23. Maddux TB, McLean SR, Nelson JM (2003b) Turbulent flow over three-dimensional dunes: 2. Fluid and bed stresses. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 108:F1Google Scholar
  24. McElroy B, Mohrig D (2009) Nature of deformation of sandy bed forms. J Geophys Res Earth Surf. Google Scholar
  25. Mohrig D, Smith JD (1996) Predicting the migration rates of subaqueous dunes. Water Resour Res 32(10):3207–3217 (96WR01129).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Muste M, Baranya S, Tsubaki R, Kim D, Ho H, Tsai H, Law D (2016) Acoustic mapping velocimetry. Water Resour Res 52(5):4132–4150. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Naqshband S, Duin O, Ribberink J, Hulscher S (2016) Modeling river dune development and dune transition to upper stage plane bed. Earth Surf Process Landf 41(3):323–335. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Naqshband S, McElroy B, Mahon RC (2017) Validating a universal model of particle transport lengths with laboratory measurements of suspended grain motions. Water Resour Res. Google Scholar
  29. Nelson JM, Smith JD (1989) Mechanics of flow over ripples and dunes. J Geophys Res 94(C6):8146–8162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Niemann SL, Fredsøe J, Jacobsen NG (2011) Sand dunes in steady flow at low Froude numbers: dune height evolution and flow resistance. J Hydraul Eng 137(1):5–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Paarlberg AJ, Dohmen-Janssen CM, Hulscher SJMH., Termes APP (2006) Modeling river dune evolution using a parameterization of flow separation. J Geophys Res 114:F01014. Google Scholar
  32. Palmer JA, Mejia-Alvarez R, Best JL, Christensen KT (2012) Particle-image velocimetry measurements of flow over interacting barchans dunes. Exp Fluids 52:809–829. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Simons DB, Richardson EV, Nordin CF (1965) Bedload equation for ripples and dunes. US Geological Survey professional paper 463-H, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  34. Sokoray-Varga B (2016) Detecting flow events in turbulent flow of vertical-slot fish passes. PhD dissertation. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. KarlsuheGoogle Scholar
  35. Tsubaki R, Fujita I (2005) Stereoscopic measurement of a fluctuating free surface with discontinuities. Meas Sci Technol 16:1894–1902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tsubaki R, Nakayama Y, Fujita I (2008) The design secret of kyokusui-no-en’s meandering channel. J Vis 11(3):265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tsubaki R, Fujita I, Tsutsumi S (2011) Measurement of the flood discharge of a small-sized river using an existing digital video recording system. J Hydroenviron Res 5(4):313–321. Google Scholar
  38. Venditti JG (2007) Turbulent flow and drag over fixed two- and three-dimensional dunes. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 112(F4):F04008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Venditti JG, Church M, Bennett SJ (2005) On the transition between 2D and 3D dunes. Sedimentology 52(6):1343–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wang H, Gao Q, Feng L, Wei R, Wang J (2015) Proper orthogonal decomposition based outlier correction for PIV data. Exp Fluids 56(2):43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Westerweel J, Geelhoed PF, Lindken R (2004) Single-pixel resolution ensemble correlation for micro-PIV applications. Exp Fluids 37(3):375–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yue W, Lin C-L, Patel VC (2006) Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow over a fixed two-dimensional dune. J Hydraul Eng 132:643–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zedler EA, Street RL (2001) Large-eddy simulation of sediment transport: currents over ripples. J Hydraul Eng 127(6):444–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Hydraulic and Water Resources EngineeringBudapest University of Technology and EconomicsBudapestHungary
  3. 3.IIHR-Hydroscience and EngineeringUniversity of IowaIowaUSA

Personalised recommendations