# Optimization of planar PIV-based pressure estimates in laminar and turbulent wakes

## Abstract

The performance of four pressure estimation techniques using Eulerian material acceleration estimates from planar, two-component Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data were evaluated in a bluff body wake. To allow for the ground truth comparison of the pressure estimates, direct numerical simulations of flow over a circular cylinder were used to obtain synthetic velocity fields. Direct numerical simulations were performed for \(Re_\mathrm{D} = 100\), 300, and 1575, spanning laminar, transitional, and turbulent wake regimes, respectively. A parametric study encompassing a range of temporal and spatial resolutions was performed for each \(Re_\mathrm{D}\). The effect of random noise typical of experimental velocity measurements was also evaluated. The results identified optimal temporal and spatial resolutions that minimize the propagation of random and truncation errors to the pressure field estimates. A model derived from linear error propagation through the material acceleration central difference estimators was developed to predict these optima, and showed good agreement with the results from common pressure estimation techniques. The results of the model are also shown to provide acceptable first-order approximations for sampling parameters that reduce error propagation when Lagrangian estimations of material acceleration are employed. For pressure integration based on planar PIV, the effect of flow three-dimensionality was also quantified, and shown to be most pronounced at higher Reynolds numbers downstream of the vortex formation region, where dominant vortices undergo substantial three-dimensional deformations. The results of the present study provide a priori recommendations for the use of pressure estimation techniques from experimental PIV measurements in vortex dominated laminar and turbulent wake flows.

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