Experiments in Fluids

, 57:162 | Cite as

X-ray fluorescence measurements of dissolved gas and cavitation

  • Daniel J. Duke
  • Alan L. Kastengren
  • Andrew B. Swantek
  • Katarzyna E. Matusik
  • Christopher F. Powell
Research Article


The dynamics of dissolved gas and cavitation are strongly coupled, yet these phenomena are difficult to measure in-situ. Both create voids in the fluid that can be difficult to distinguish. We present an application of X-ray fluorescence in which liquid density and total noncondensible gas concentration (both dissolved and nucleated) are simultaneously measured. The liquid phase is doped with 400 ppm of a bromine tracer, and dissolved air is removed and substituted with krypton. Fluorescent emission at X-ray wavelengths is simultaneously excited from the Br and Kr with a focused monochromatic X-ray beam from a synchrotron source. We measure the flow in a cavitating nozzle 0.5 mm in diameter. From Br fluorescence, total displacement of the liquid is measured. From Kr fluorescence, the mass fraction of both dissolved and nucleated gas is measured. Volumetric displacement of liquid due to both cavitation and gas precipitation can be separated through estimation of the local equilibrium dissolved mass fraction. The uncertainty in the line of sight projected densities of the liquid and gas phases is 4–6 %. The high fluorescence yields and energies of Br and Kr allow small mass fractions of gas to be measured, down to 10−5, with an uncertainty of 8 %. These quantitative measurements complement existing optical diagnostic techniques and provide new insight into the diffusion of gas into cavitation bubbles, which can increase their internal density, pressure and lifetimes by orders of magnitude.


Cavitation Nozzle Wall Projected Density CBr4 Vapor Volume Fraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This research was performed at the 7-BM beam line of the APS at Argonne National Laboratory. Use of the APS is supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Argonne’s fuel injection research is sponsored by the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program under the direction of Gurpreet Singh and Leo Breton.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel J. Duke
    • 1
  • Alan L. Kastengren
    • 2
  • Andrew B. Swantek
    • 1
  • Katarzyna E. Matusik
    • 1
  • Christopher F. Powell
    • 1
  1. 1.Energy Systems DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryLemontUSA
  2. 2.X-Ray Science DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryLemontUSA

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