Advertisement

Experiments in Fluids

, 57:161 | Cite as

Topology of vortex–wing interaction

  • C. McKenna
  • D. Rockwell
Research Article

Abstract

A trailing vortex incident upon a wing can generate different modes of vortex–wing interaction. These modes, which may involve either enhancement or suppression of the vortex generated at the tip of the wing, are classified on the basis of the present experiments together with computations at the Air Force Research Laboratory. Occurrence of a given mode of interaction is predominantly determined by the dimensionless location of the incident vortex relative to the tip of the wing and is relatively insensitive to the Reynolds number and dimensionless circulation of the incident vortex. The genesis of the basic interaction modes is clarified using streamline topology with associated critical points that show compatibility between complex streamline patterns in the vicinity of the tip of the wing. Whereas formation of an enhanced tip vortex involves a region of large upwash in conjunction with localized flow separation, complete suppression of the tip vortex is associated with a small-scale separation–reattachment bubble bounded by downwash at the wing tip.

Keywords

Vortex Vorticity Particle Image Velocimetry Saddle Point Separation Bubble 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This investigation was supported by AFOSR Grant FA9550-14-1-0166, monitored by Dr. Douglas Smith.

References

  1. Adrian RJ, Westerweel J (2011) Particle image velocimetry. Cambridge University Press, CambridgezbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Bangash ZA, Sanchez RP, Ahmed A, Khan MJ (2006) Aerodynamics of formation flight. J Aircr 43(4):907–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnes CJ, Visbal MR, Gordnier RE (2014) Numerical simulations of streamwise-oriented vortex/flexible wing interaction. AIAA Paper 2014-2313. AIAAGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnes CJ, Visbal MR, Gordnier RE (2015a) Analysis of streamwise-oriented vortex interactions for two wings in close proximity. Phys Fluids 27:015103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnes CJ, Visbal MR, Gordnier RE (2015b) Effect of bending oscillations on a streamwise-oriented vortex interaction. AIAA Paper 2015-3303. AIAAGoogle Scholar
  6. Blake WB, Gingras DR (2004) Comparison of predicted and measured formation flight interference effect. J Aircr 41(2):201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Doligalski TL, Smith CR, Walker JDA (1994) Vortex interactions with walls. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 26:573–616MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. Garmann DJ, Visbal MR (2014) Unsteady interactions of a wandering streamwise-oriented vortex with a wing. AIAA Paper 2014-2105. AIAAGoogle Scholar
  9. Garmann DJ, Visbal MR (2015a) Interactions of a streamwise-oriented vortex with a finite wing. J Fluid Mech 767:782–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Garmann DJ, Visbal MR (2015b) Streamwise-oriented vortex interactions with a NACA0012 wing. AIAA Paper 2015-1066. AIAAGoogle Scholar
  11. Garmann DJ, Visbal MR (2015c) Transient encounters of a NACA0012 wing with a streamwise-oriented vortex. AIAA Paper 2015-3073. AIAAGoogle Scholar
  12. Hummel D (1983) Aerodynamic aspects of formation flight in birds. J Theor Biol 104(3):321–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hummel D (1995) Formation flight as an energy-saving mechanism. Isr J Zool 41(3):261–278Google Scholar
  14. Inasawa A, Mori F, Asai M (2012) Detailed observations of interactions of wingtip vortices in close-formation flight. J Aircr 49(1):206–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kless J, Aftosmis MJ, Ning SA, Nemec M (2013) Inviscid analysis of extended-formation flight. AIAA J 51(7):1703–1715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McKenna C, Bross M, Rockwell D (2016) Structure of a trailing vortex incident upon a wing. (Submitted for publication)Google Scholar
  17. Ning SA, Flanzer TC, Kroo IM (2011) Aerodynamic performance of extended formation flight. J Aircr 48(3):855–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Perry AE, Chong MS (1990) Interpretation of flow visualization. University of Melbourne, ParkvilleGoogle Scholar
  19. Rockwell D (1998) Vortex–body interactions. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 30:199–229MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Slotnick JP, Clark RW, Friedman DM, Yadlin Y, Yeh DT, Carr JE, Czech MJ, Bieniawski SW (2014) Computational aerodynamic analysis for the formation flight for aerodynamic benefit program. AIAA Paper 2014-1458. AIAAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA

Personalised recommendations