Free-stream static pressure measurements in the Longshot hypersonic wind tunnel and sensitivity analysis

  • Guillaume GrossirEmail author
  • Bart Van Hove
  • Sébastien Paris
  • Patrick Rambaud
  • Olivier Chazot
Research Article


The performance of fast-response slender static pressure probes is evaluated in the short-duration, cold-gas, VKI Longshot hypersonic wind tunnel. Free-stream Mach numbers range between 9.5 and 12, and unit Reynolds numbers are within 3–10 × 106/m. Absolute pressure sensors are fitted within the probes, and an inexpensive calibration method, suited to low static pressure environments (200–1000 Pa), is described. Transfer functions relating the probe measurements p w to the free-stream static pressure p are established for the Longshot flow conditions based on numerical simulations. The pressure ratios p w /p are found to be close to unity for both laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Weak viscous effects characterized by small viscous interaction parameters \({\bar{\chi }}<1.5\) are confirmed experimentally for probe aspect ratios of L/D > 16.5 by installing multiple pressure sensors in a single probe. The effect of pressure orifice geometry is also evaluated experimentally and found to be negligible for either straight or chamfered holes, 0.6–1 mm in diameter. No sensitivity to probe angle of attack could be evidenced for α < 0.33°. Pressure measurements are compared to theoretical predictions assuming an isentropic nozzle flow expansion. Significant deviations from this ideal case and the Mach 14 contoured nozzle design are uncovered. Validation of the static pressure measurements is obtained by comparing shock wave locations on Schlieren photographs to numerical predictions using free-stream properties derived from the static pressure probes. While these results apply to the Longshot wind tunnel, the present methodology and sensitivity analysis can guide similar investigations for other hypersonic test facilities.


Viscous Effect Schlieren Image Schlieren Photograph Pitot Pressure Contour Nozzle 
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The authors gratefully acknowledge the FRIA (Fonds pour la formation à la Recherche dans l’Industrie et dans l’Agriculture) for the financial support of this project.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guillaume Grossir
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bart Van Hove
    • 2
  • Sébastien Paris
    • 1
  • Patrick Rambaud
    • 1
  • Olivier Chazot
    • 1
  1. 1.von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Aeronautics and Aerospace DepartmentRhode-Saint-GenèseBelgium
  2. 2.Royal Observatory of BelgiumBrusselsBelgium

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