Advertisement

Experiments in Fluids

, 56:38 | Cite as

Mixing enhancement of an axisymmetric jet using flaplets with zero mass-flux excitation

  • Hanns Müller-VahlEmail author
  • Christian Navid Nayeri
  • Christian Oliver Paschereit
  • David Greenblatt
Research Article

Abstract

A novel active control concept aimed at mixing enhancement of an axisymmetric incompressible jet was investigated experimentally. The lip of the jet was equipped with evenly distributed small flaps, or flaplets, deflected away from the stream at an angle of 30°. Controlled attachment of the jet’s boundary layer to the flaps was achieved by introducing zero mass-flux perturbations through control slots located at the base of the flaps, yielding a radial deflection of the shear layer. As a result, pairs of strong streamwise vortices of a finite length were periodically generated and shed in phase with the control signal. At a Strouhal number of 0.3 based on the nozzle diameter, the perturbations also regulated the shedding of spanwise vortex rings. Hot-wire measurements in the vicinity of the flaplets as well as phase-averaged stereoscopic PIV measurements at various streamwise locations were employed to elucidate the mechanism of controlled attachment and to map the evolution of the coherent structures. The strength of axial vorticity was strongly dependent upon the control frequency. A semiempirical framework adopted to quantify the overall effect of control predicted a significant increase in mixing in the region close to the nozzle.

Keywords

Vortex Vorticity Shear Layer Vortex Ring Streamwise Vortex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support for the work provided by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), project number Pa 920/4-1. The assistance of Yogesh Singh is greatly appreciated.

Supplementary material

348_2014_1889_MOESM1_ESM.flv (2.6 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (FLV 2696 kb)
348_2014_1889_MOESM2_ESM.flv (2.5 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (FLV 2582 kb)
348_2014_1889_MOESM3_ESM.flv (2.1 mb)
Supplementary material 3 (FLV 2173 kb)
348_2014_1889_MOESM4_ESM.flv (2 mb)
Supplementary material 4 (FLV 2043 kb)
348_2014_1889_MOESM5_ESM.flv (1.6 mb)
Supplementary material 5 (FLV 1630 kb)

References

  1. Bernal LP, Roshko A (1986) Streamwise vortex structure in plane mixing layers. J Fluid Mech 170:499–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bodony DJ (2005) The prediction and understanding of jet noise. Center for Turbulence Research Annual Research Briefs 367377Google Scholar
  3. Breidenthal R (1981) Structure in turbulent mixing layers and wakes using a chemical reaction. J Fluid Mech 109:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bridges J, Brown CA, (2004) Parametric testing of chevrons on single flow hot jets. In: Technical report, NASAGoogle Scholar
  5. Bridges J, Wernet M, Brown C (2003) Control of jet noise through mixing enhancement. In: Technical report, NASAGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown CA, Bridges J (2006) Acoustic efficiency of azimuthal modes in jet noise using chevron nozzles. AIAA paper 2006–2645Google Scholar
  7. Brown GL, Roshko A (1974) On density effects and large structure in turbulent mixing layers. J Fluid Mech 64:775–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Callender B, Gutmark E, Martens S (2005) Far-field acoustic investigation into chevron nozzle mechanisms and trends. AIAA J 43(1):87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carr LW (1988) Progress in analysis and prediction of dynamic stall. J Aircr 25(1):6–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Collis SS, Lele SK, Moser RD, Rogers MM (1994) The evolution of a plane mixing layer with spanwise nonuniform forcing. Phys Fluids 6:381CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Crow SC, Champagne FH (1971) Orderly structure in jet turbulence. J Fluid Mech 48:547–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Darabi A, Wygnanski I (2004) Active management of naturally separated flow over a solid surface. Part 1. The forced reattachment process. J Fluid Mech 510:105–129 and Part 2. The separation process. J Fluid Mech 510:131–144Google Scholar
  13. Greenblatt D (2005) Management of vortices trailing flapped wings via separation control. AIAA paper no. 2005–2061Google Scholar
  14. Greenblatt D (2006) Managing flap vortices via separation control. AIAA J 44(11):2755–2764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Greenblatt D (2007) Dual location separation control on a semispan wing. AIAA J 45(8):1848–1860CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  16. Greenblatt D (2012) Fluidic control of a wing tip vortex. AIAA J 50(2):375–386CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  17. Greenblatt D, Wygnanski I (2000) Control of flow separation by periodic excitation,”. Prog Aerosp Sci 36(7):487–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Greenblatt D, Wygnanski I (2003) Effect of leading-edge curvature on airfoil separation control. J Aircr 40(3):473–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Greenblatt D, Singh Y, Kastantin Y, Nayeri CN, Paschereit CO (2007) Active management of entrainment and streamwise vortices in an incompressible jet. Active Flow Control 95:281–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Greenblatt D, Singh Y, Nayeri CN, Paschereit CO, Mohan NKD (2008) Active control of an incompressible axisymmetric jet. ASME paper no. ESDA2008-59509Google Scholar
  21. Grinstein FF, Gutmark EJ, Parr TP, Hanson-Parr D, Obeysekare U (1996) Streamwise and spanwise vortex interaction in an axisymmetric jet. A computational and experimental study. Phys Fluids 8:1515–1524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gutmark EJ, Grinstein FF (1999) Flow control with noncircular jets. Ann Rev Fluid Mech 31:239–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gutmark EJ, Schadow KC, Yu KH (1995) Mixing enhancement in supersonic free shear flows. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 27:375–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hilgers A, Boersma BJ (2001) Optimization of turbulent jet mixing. Fluid Dyn Res 29(6):345–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Huang LS, Maestrello L, Bryant TD (1987) Separation control over airfoils at high angles of attack by sound emanating from the surface. AIAA paper no. 1987–1261Google Scholar
  26. Huerre P, Monkewitz PA (1985) Absolute and convective instabilities in free shear layers. J Fluid Mech 159:151–168CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  27. Hussain AKMF (1986) Coherent structures and turbulence. J Fluid Mech 173:303–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kamran MA, McGuirk JJ (2011) Subsonic jet mixing via active control using steady and pulsed control jets. AIAA J 49(4):712–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Katz Y, Nishri B, Wygnanski I (1989) The delay of turbulent boundary layer separation by oscillatory active control. AIAA paper no. 1989–0975Google Scholar
  30. Katz Y, Nishri B, Wygnanski I (1989) The Delay of turbulent boundary layer separation by oscillatory active control. AIAA paper no. 1989–0975Google Scholar
  31. Kinzie K, Henderson B, Whitmire J, Abeyshinghe A (2004) Fluidic chevrons for jet noise reduction. Active 04, Williamsburg, Virginia, September 20–22, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  32. Kinzie K, Henderson B, Whitmire J, Abeyshinghe A (2004) Fluidic chevrons for jet noise reduction. Active 04Google Scholar
  33. Knowles K, Saddington AJ (2006) A review of jet mixing enhancement for aircraft propulsion applications. J Aerosp Eng 220:103–127Google Scholar
  34. Laurendeau E, Jordan P, Bonnet J, Delville J, Parnaudeau P, Lamballais E (2008) Subsonic jet noise reduction by fluidic control: the interaction region and the global effect. Phys Fluids 20:101519. doi: 10.1063/1.3006424 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liepmann D, Gharib M (1992) The role of streamwise vorticity in the near-field entrainment of round jets. J Fluid Mech 245:643–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marble FE, Zukoski EE, Jacobs JW, Hendricks GJ, Waitz IA (1990) Shock enhancement and control of hypersonic mixing and combustion. AIAA paper no. 1990–1981Google Scholar
  37. Mohan NKD, Greenblatt D, Nayeri CN, Paschereit CO, Nagangudy Ramamurthi P (2008) Active and passive flow control of an incompressible axisymmetric jet. P ASME turbo expo 2008Google Scholar
  38. Müller-Vahl H, Singh Y, Greenblatt D, Nayeri CN, Paschereit CO (2010) Active control of an incompressible axisymmetric jet using zero mass-flux excitation. ICJWSF2010Google Scholar
  39. Nishri B, Wygnanski I (1998) Effects of periodic excitation on turbulent flow separation from a flap. AIAA J 36(4):547–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Papamoschou D, Rostamimonjezi S (2012) Modeling of noise reduction for turbulent jets with induced asymmetry. AIAA paper no. 2012–2158Google Scholar
  41. Paschereit CO, Oster D, Long TS, Fiedler HE, Wygnanski I (1992) Flow visualization of interactions among large coherent structures in an axisymmetric jet. Exp Fluids 12(3):189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Paschereit CO, Wygnanski I, Fiedler HE (1995) Experimental investigation of subharmonic resonance in an axisymmetric jet. J Fluid Mech 283:365–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Raupach MR, Antonia RA, Rajagopalan S (1991) Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers. Appl Mech Rev 44(1):1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Reynolds WC, Parekh DE, Juvet PJD, Lee MJD (2003) Bifurcating and blooming jets. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 35:295–315CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  45. Rotta J (1972) Statistical theory of inhomogeneous turbulence, part 1. NASA TT F-14, 560Google Scholar
  46. Schlinker RH, Simonich JC, Shannon DW, Reba RA, Colonius T, Gudmundsson K, Ladeinde F (2009) Supersonic jet noise from round and chevron nozzles: experimental studies. AIAA paper no. 2009–3257Google Scholar
  47. Singh Y, Greenblatt D, Nayeri CN, Paschereit CO (2009) Active control of an incompressible axisymmetric jet using flaps. TSFP-6, Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, Seoul, KoreaGoogle Scholar
  48. Tamburello AD, Amitay M (2006) Manipulation of an axisymmetric jet using continuous control jets. J Turbul 7(59):1–24MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  49. Tamburello DA, Amitay M (2007) Three-dimensional interactions of a free jet with a perpendicular synthetic jet. J Turbul 8(38):1–21Google Scholar
  50. Thomas RH, Choudhari MM, Joslin RD (2002) Flow and noise control: review and assessment of future directions. In: Technical report, NASAGoogle Scholar
  51. Violato D, Scarano F (2011) Three-dimensional evolution of flow structures in transitional circular and chevron jets. Phys Fluids 23:124104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Waitz IA, Qiu YJ, Manning TA, Fung AKS, Elliot JK, Kerwin JM, Krasnodebski JK, O’Sullivan MN, Tew DE, Greitzer EM, Marble FE, Tan CS, Tillman TG (1997) Enhanced mixing with streamwise vorticity. Prog Aerosp Sci 33(5–6):323–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Winant CD, Browand FK (1974) Vortex pairing: the mechanism of turbulent mixing-layer growth at moderate Reynolds number. J Fluid Mech 63:237–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zaman KBMQ, Bridges JE, Huff DL (2010) Evolution from ‘tabs’ to ‘chevron technology’—a review. In: Proceedings of the 13th Asian congress of fluid mechanics, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhang S, Schneider SP (1995) Quantitative molecular-mixing measurements in a round jet with tabs. Phys Fluids 7:1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hanns Müller-Vahl
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Christian Navid Nayeri
    • 2
  • Christian Oliver Paschereit
    • 2
  • David Greenblatt
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringTechnion - Israel Institute of TechnologyTechnion City, HaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Institute of Fluid Dynamics and Technical AcousticsBerlin Institute of TechnologyBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations