Experiments in Fluids

, 55:1748 | Cite as

Turbulent swirling flow in a dynamic model of a uniflow-scavenged two-stroke engine

  • K. M. Ingvorsen
  • K. E. Meyer
  • J. H. Walther
  • S. Mayer
Research Article


It is desirable to use computational fluid dynamics for optimization of the in-cylinder processes in low-speed two-stroke uniflow-scavenged marine diesel engines. However, the complex nature of the turbulent swirling in-cylinder flow necessitates experimental data for validation of the used turbulence models. In the present work, the flow in a dynamic scale model of a uniflow-scavenged cylinder is investigated experimentally. The model has a transparent cylinder and a moving piston driven by a linear motor. The flow is investigated using phase-locked stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) and time-resolved laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Radial profiles of the phase-locked mean and rms velocities are computed from the velocity fields recorded with PIV, and the accuracy of the obtained profiles is demonstrated by comparison with reference LDA measurements. Measurements are carried out at five axial positions for 15 different times during the engine cycle and show the temporal and spatial development of the swirling in-cylinder flow. The tangential velocity profiles in the bottom of the cylinder near the end of the scavenge process are characterized by a concentrated swirl resulting in wake-like axial velocity profiles and the occurrence of a vortex breakdown. After scavenge port closing, the axial velocity profiles indicate that large transient swirl-induced structures exist in the cylinder. Comparison with profiles obtained under steady-flow conditions shows that the scavenge flow cannot be assumed to be quasi-steady. The temporal development of the swirl strength is investigated by computing the angular momentum. The swirl strength shows an exponential decay from scavenge port closing to scavenge port opening corresponding to a reduction of 34 %, which is in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

Supplementary material

348_2014_1748_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (569 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (pdf 569 KB)
348_2014_1748_MOESM2_ESM.avi (5.4 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (avi 5527 KB)
348_2014_1748_MOESM3_ESM.avi (4.9 mb)
Supplementary material 3 (avi 5032 KB)
348_2014_1748_MOESM4_ESM.avi (5.3 mb)
Supplementary material 4 (avi 5394 KB)
348_2014_1748_MOESM5_ESM.avi (5.3 mb)
Supplementary material 5 (avi 5407 KB)


  1. Benjamin TB (1965) Significance of the vortex breakdown phenomenon. J Basic Eng 87:518–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blair GP (1996) Design and simulation of two-stroke engines. SAE International, 400 Commonwealth Drive, WarrendaleGoogle Scholar
  3. Davis GC, Kent JC (1979) Comparison of model calculations and experimental measurements of the bulk cylinder flow processes in a motored PROCO engine. SAE Tech Paper Ser Paper No. 790290Google Scholar
  4. Diwakar R (1987) Three-dimensional modeling of the in-cylinder gas exchange processes in a uniflow-scavenged two-stroke engine. SAE Tech Paper Ser Paper No. 870596Google Scholar
  5. Escudier MP, Keller JJ (1985) Recirculation in swirling flow: a manifestation of vortex breakdown. AIAA J 23(1):111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Goldsborough SS, Blarigan PV (2003) Optimizing the scavenging system for a two-stroke cycle, free piston engine for high efficiency and low emissions: a computational approach. SAE Tech Paper Ser 1:1–22Google Scholar
  7. Haider S, Schnipper T, Obeidat A, Meyer KE, Okulov VL, Mayer S, Walther JH (2013) PIV study of the effect of piston position on the in-cylinder swirling flow during the scavenging process in large two-stroke marine diesel engines. J Mar Sci Technol 18:133–143. doi:10.1007/s00773-012-0192-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Heywood JB (1988) Internal combustion engine fundamentals. McGraw Hill Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Heywood JB, Sher E (1999) The two-stroke cycle engine: its development, operation, and design. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Hult J, Mayer S (2013) A methodology for laser diagnostics in large-bore marine two-stroke diesel engines. Meas Sci Technol 24(4):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ingvorsen KM, Meyer KE, Schnipper T, Walther JH, Mayer S (2012) Swirling flow in model of large two-stroke diesel engine. In: 16th International symposium on applications of laser techniques to fluid mechanics, Lisbon, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  12. Ingvorsen KM, Meyer KE, Walther JH, Mayer S (2013) Turbulent swirling flow in a model of a uniflow-scavenged two-stroke engine. Exp Fluids 54(3):1494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jakirlić S, Hanjalić K, Tropea C (2002) Modeling rotating and swirling turbulent flows: a perpetual challenge. AIAA J 40(10):1984–1996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Joenson TV (2011) Numerical simulation of the flow in a model diesel engine. Master’s thesis, Technical University of DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  15. Kitoh O (1991) Experimental study of turbulent swirling flow in a straight pipe. J Fluid Mech 225:445–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kreith F, Sonju OK (1965) The decay of a turbulent swirl in a pipe. J Fluid Mech 22(2):257–271CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. Lucca-Negro O, O’Doherty T (2001) Vortex breakdown: a review. Prog Energy Combust Sci 27:431–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Meyer KE, Pedersen JM, Özcan O (2007) A turbulent jet in crossflow analyzed with proper orthogonal decomposition. J Fluid Mech 583:199–227CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  19. Nakagawa H, Kato S, Tateishi M, Adachi T, Tsujimura H, Nakashima M (1990) Airflow in the cylinder of a 2-stoke cycle uniflow scavenging diesel engine during compression stroke. Jpn Soc Mech Eng 33(3):591–598Google Scholar
  20. Obeidat A, Schnipper T, Ingvorsen KM, Haider S, Meyer KE, Mayer S, Walther JH (2014) Large eddy simulations of the influence of piston position on the swirling flow in a model two-stroke diesel engine. Int J Num Method Heat Fluid Flow 24(2):325–341CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  21. Ohigashi S, Kashiwada Y, Achiwa J (1960) Scavenging the 2-stroke engine—effect of inlet port-angle on scavenging process of a through scavenging system. Jpn Soc Mech Eng 3(9):130–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Percival WH (1955) Method of scavenging analysis for 2-stroke-cycle diesel cylinders. SAE Trans 63:737–751Google Scholar
  23. Ruith MR, Chen P, Meiburg E, Maxworthy T (2003) Three-dimensional vortex breakdown in swirling jets and wakes: direct numerical simulation. J Fluid Mech 486:331–378CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  24. Schweitzer PH (1949) Scavenging of two-stroke cycle diesel engines. Macmillan Publishing Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Sher E, Hossain I, Zhang Q, Winterbone DE (1991) Calculation and measurements in the cylinder of a two-stroke uniflow-scavenged engine under steady flow conditions. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 4:418–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sigurdsson E, Ingvorsen KM, Jensen MV, Mayer S, Matlok S, Walther JH (2014) Numerical analysis of scavenge flow and convective heat transfer in large two-stroke marine diesel engines. Appl Energy 123:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sirovich L (1987) Turbulence and the dynamics of coherent structures. Part I: coherent structures. Quart Appl Math 45(3):561–570MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  28. Sørensen JN, Gelfgat AY, Naumov IV, Mikkelsen RM (2009) Experimental and numerical results on three-dimensional instabilities in a rotating disk-tall cylinder flow. Phys Fluids 21(5):054,102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sørensen JN, Naumov IV, Okulov VL (2011) Multiple helical modes of vortex breakdown. J Fluid Mech 683:430–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Steenbergen W, Voskamp J (1998) The rate of decay of swirl in turbulent pipe flow. Flow Meas Instrum 9(2):67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sung NW, Patterson DJ (1982) Air motion in a two stroke engine cylinder—the effects of exhaust geometry. SAE Trans, pp 2534–2544, Paper No. 820751Google Scholar
  32. Uzkan T (1988) The effects of engine speed on the scavenging characteristics of a two-cycle engine. J Eng Gas Turbines Power 110:523–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Young HD, Freedman RA (2004) Sears and Zemansky’s university physics: with modern physics, 11th edn. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, San FransicoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. M. Ingvorsen
    • 1
  • K. E. Meyer
    • 1
  • J. H. Walther
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. Mayer
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringTechnical University of DenmarkKgs. LyngbyDenmark
  2. 2.Computational Science and Engineering LaboratoryETH ZürichZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.MAN Diesel & Turbo SECopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations