Experiments in Fluids

, 55:1724 | Cite as

Volumetric intake flow measurements of an IC engine using magnetic resonance velocimetry

  • Daniel FreudenhammerEmail author
  • Elias Baum
  • Brian Peterson
  • Benjamin Böhm
  • Bernd Jung
  • Sven Grundmann
Research Article


Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) measurements are performed in a 1:1 scale model of a single-cylinder optical engine to investigate the volumetric flow within the intake and cylinder geometry during flow induction. The model is a steady flow water analogue of the optical IC-engine with a fixed valve lift of \(9.21\) mm to simulate the induction flow at crank-angle \(270^{\circ }\)bTDC. This setup resembles a steady flow engine test bench configuration. MRV measurements are validated with phase-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements performed within the symmetry plane of the optical engine. Differences in experimental operating parameters between MRV and PIV measurements are well addressed. Comparison of MRV and PIV measurements is demonstrated using normalized mean velocity component profiles and showed excellent agreement in the upper portion of the cylinder chamber (i.e., \(y \ge -20\) mm). MRV measurements are further used to analyze the ensemble average volumetric flow within the 3D engine domain. Measurements are used to describe the 3D overflow and underflow behavior as the annular flow enters the cylinder chamber. Flow features such as the annular jet-like flows extending into the cylinder, their influence on large-scale in-cylinder flow motion, as well as flow recirculation zones are identified in 3D space. Inlet flow velocities are analyzed around the entire valve curtain perimeter to quantify percent mass flow rate entering the cylinder. Recirculation zones associated with the underflow are shown to reduce local mass flow rates up to 50 %. Recirculation zones are further analyzed in 3D space within the intake manifold and cylinder chamber. It is suggested that such recirculation zones can have large implications on cylinder charge filling and variations of the in-cylinder flow pattern. MRV is revealed to be an important diagnostic tool used to understand the volumetric induction flow within engine geometries and is potentially suited to evaluate flow changes due to intake geometry modifications.


Particle Image Velocimetry Recirculation Zone Particle Image Velocimetry Measurement Annular Flow Intake Valve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Financial support by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through PE 2068 and EXC 259 is gratefully acknowledged. The authors are also especially thankful to Prof. A. Dreizler for fruitful discussions.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Freudenhammer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elias Baum
    • 2
  • Brian Peterson
    • 2
  • Benjamin Böhm
    • 3
  • Bernd Jung
    • 4
    • 5
  • Sven Grundmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Smart InterfacesTechnische Universität DarmstadtGriesheimGermany
  2. 2.Reaktive Strömungen und MesstechnikTechnische Universität DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany
  3. 3.Energie- und KraftwerkstechnikTechnische Universität DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany
  4. 4.Klinik für Radiologie, Medizin PhysikUniversitätsklinikum FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  5. 5.Department of RadiologyUniversity Hospital BernBernSwitzerland

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