Experiments in Fluids

, 54:1592 | Cite as

Experimental study on flow kinematics and impact pressure in liquid sloshing

  • Youn Kyung Song
  • Kuang-An Chang
  • Yonguk Ryu
  • Sun Hong Kwon
Research Article


This paper experimentally studied flow kinematics and impact pressure of a partially filled liquid sloshing flow produced by the periodic motion of a rectangular tank. The study focused on quantifying the flow velocities and impact pressures induced by the flow. Filled with water at a 30 % filling ratio, the tank oscillated at a resonant frequency and generated the violent sloshing flow. The flow propagated like breaking waves that plunged on both side walls and formed up-rushing jets that impacted on the top wall. Velocities of the multiphase flow were measured using the bubble image velocimetry technique. A total of 15 pressure sensors were mounted on the top wall and a side wall to measure the impact pressures. The local kinetic energy obtained by the measured local velocities was used to correlate with the corresponding pressures and determine the impact coefficient. In the sloshing flow, the flow direction was dominantly horizontal in the same direction of the tank motion before the wave crest broke and impinged on a side wall. At this stage, the maximum flow velocities reached 1.6C with C being the wave phase speed. After the wave impingement, the uprising jet moved in the vertical direction with a maximum velocity reached 3.6C before it impacted on the top wall. It was observed that the impact coefficients differed by almost one order of magnitude between the side wall impact and the top wall impact, mainly due to the large difference between the local velocities. A nearly constant impact coefficient was found for both side wall and top wall impacts if the impact pressures were directly correlated with the flow kinetic energy calculated using C instead of the local velocities.


Particle Image Velocimetry Wave Crest Impact Pressure Liquid Slosh Flow Kinematic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors wish to thank the graduate research team and Professor Ho Hwan Chun in the Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Pusan National University, for their assistance during the experiments.


  1. Abramson HN (1966) Dynamic behavior of liquid in moving container. Appl Mech Rev 16(7):501–506Google Scholar
  2. Akyildız H, Erdem Ünal N (2006) Sloshing in a three-dimensional rectangular tank: numerical simulation and experimental validation. Ocean Eng 33(16):2135–2149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akyildiz H, Ünal E (2005) Experimental investigation of pressure distribution on a rectangular tank due to the liquid sloshing. Ocean Eng 32(11–12):1503–1516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ariyarathne K, Chang K-A, Mercier R (2012) Green water impact pressure on a three-dimensional model structure. Exp Fluids. doi: 10.1007/s00348-012-1399-9
  5. Armenio V, La Rocca M (1996) On the analysis of sloshing of water in rectangular containers: numerical study and experimental validation. Ocean Eng 23(8):705–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagnold RA (1939) Interim report on wave-pressure ResearchRep. Institution of Civil Engineers, London Google Scholar
  7. Bass RL, Bowles JEB, Trudell RW, Navickas J, Peck JC, Yoshimura N, Endo S, Pots BFM (1985) Modeling criteria for scaled LNG sloshing experiments. J Fluids Eng 107(2):272–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bredmose H, Brocchini M, Peregrine DH, Thais L (2003) Experimental investigation and numerical modelling of steep forced water waves. J Fluid Mech 490:217–249CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. Bredmose H, Peregrine DH, Bullock GN (2009) Violent breaking wave impacts. Part 2: modelling the effect of air. J Fluid Mech 641:389–430MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. Buchner B (1995) The impact of green water on FPSO Design. In: Proceedings of offshore technology conference. pp 45–57 Google Scholar
  11. Buchner B, Bunnik T (2007) Extreme wave effects on deepwater floating structures. In: 2007 Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, OTC18493 Google Scholar
  12. Bullock G, Müller G, Obhrai C, Peregrine H, Bredmose H, Wolters G (2004) Field and laboratory measurement of wave impacts, in coastal structures 2003, edited. American Society of Civil Engineers, pp 343–355Google Scholar
  13. Bullock GN, Obhrai C, Peregrine DH, Bredmose H (2007) Violent breaking wave impacts. Part 1: results from large-scale regular wave tests on vertical and sloping walls. Coast Eng 54(8):602–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Celebi MS, Akyildiz H (2002) Nonlinear modeling of liquid sloshing in a moving rectangular tank. Ocean Eng 29(12):1527–1553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chan E-S (1994) Mechanics of deep water plunging-wave impacts on vertical structures. Coast Eng 22(1–2):115–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chan ES, Melville WK (1988) Deep-water plunging wave pressures on a vertical plane wall. Proc R Soc Lond Math Phys Sci 417(1852):95–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chang K-A, Ariyarathne K, Mercier R (2011) Three-dimensional green water velocity on a model structure. Exp Fluids 51(2):327–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen H-C (2011) CFD simulation of compressible two-phase sloshing flow in a LNG tank. Ocean Sys Eng 1(1):31–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooker MJ, Peregrine DH (1992) Wave impact pressure and its effect upon bodies lying on the sea bed. Coast Eng 18(3–4):205–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crawford A, Bullock G, Hewson P, Bird P (1997a) Classification of breaking wave loads on vertical structures. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 119(4):381–397Google Scholar
  21. Crawford AR, Bullock GN, Hewson PJ, Bird PA (1997b) Wave impact pressures and aeration at a breakwater. Paper presented at the third international symposium on ocean wave measurement and analysis. ASCE, Reston, VAGoogle Scholar
  22. Delorme L, Colagrossi A, Souto-Iglesias A, Zamora-Rodríguez R, Botía-Vera E (2009) A set of canonical problems in sloshing, Part I: pressure field in forced roll—comparison between experimental results and SPH. Ocean Eng 36(2):168–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dillingham J (1981) Motion studies of a vessel with water on deck. Mar Technol 18(1):38–50Google Scholar
  24. Eswaran M, Singh A, Saha UK (2011) Experimental measurement of the surface velocity field in an externally induced sloshing tank. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part M J Eng Marit Environ 225(2):133–148Google Scholar
  25. Faltinsen OM (1974) A non-linear theory of sloshing in rectangular tanks. J Ship Res 18(4):224–241Google Scholar
  26. Faltinsen OM, Rognebakke OF, Lukovsky IA, Timokha AN (2000) Multidimensional modal analysis of nonlinear sloshing in a rectangular tank with finite water depth. J Fluid Mech 407:201–234MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. Faltinsen OM, Rognebakke OF, Timokha AN (2005) Classification of three-dimensional nonlinear sloshing in a square-base tank with finite depth. J Fluids Struct 20(1):81–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Faltinsen OM, Firoozkoohi R, Timokha AN (2011) Analytical modeling of liquid sloshing in a two-dimensional rectangular tank with a slat screen. J Eng Math 70(1–3):93–109MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. Gingold RA, Monaghan JJ (1977) Smoothed particle hydrodynamics—Theory and application to non-spherical stars. Mon Not R Astron Soc 181(November):375–389zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  30. Godderidge B, Turnock S, Earl C, Tan M (2009) The effect of fluid compressibility on the simulation of sloshing impacts. Ocean Eng 36(8):578–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hattori M, Arami A, Yui T (1994) Wave impact pressure on vertical walls under breaking waves of various types. Coast Eng 22(1–2):79–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hinatsu M (2001) Experiments of two-phase flows for the joint research. In: Proceedings of the SRI-TUHH mini-workshop on numerical simulation of two-phase flows, National Maritime Research Institute & Technische Universität, Hamburg–Harburg Google Scholar
  33. Hirt CW, Nichols BD (1981) Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries. J Comput Phys 39(1):201–225CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  34. Hull P, Müller G (2002) An investigation of breaker heights, shapes and pressures. Ocean Eng 29(1):59–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ibrahim RA, Pilipchuk VN, Ikeda T (2001) Recent advances in liquid sloshing dynamics. Appl Mech Rev 54(2):133–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lee T-H, Zhou Z, Cao Y (2002) Numerical simulations of hydraulic jumps in water sloshing and water impacting. J Fluids Eng 124(1):215–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lin C, Hsieh S-C, Kuo K-J, Chang K-A (2008) Periodic oscillation caused by a flow over a vertical drop pool. J Hydraul Eng 134:948–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lin C, Hsieh S-C, Lin I-J, Chang K-A, Raikar RV (2012) Flow property and self-similarity in steady hydraulic jumps. Exp Fluids. doi: 10.1007/s00348-012-1377-2 Google Scholar
  39. Lugni C, Brocchini M, Faltinsen OM (2006) Wave impact loads: the role of the flip-through. Phys Fluids 18(12):122101–122117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lugni C, Brocchini M, Faltinsen OM (2010a) Evolution of the air cavity during a depressurized wave impact. I. The kinematic flow field. Phys Fluids 22(5):056101–056117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lugni C, Brocchini M, Faltinsen OM (2010b) Evolution of the air cavity during a depressurized wave impact. II. The dynamic field. Phys Fluids 22(5):056102–056113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mikelis NE, Miller JK, Taylor KV (1984) Sloshing in partially filled liquid tanks and its effect on ship motions: numerical simulations and experimental verification. Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, pp 267–282Google Scholar
  43. Okamoto T, Kawahara M (1990) Two-dimensional sloshing analysis by Lagrangian finite element method. Int J Numer Meth Fluids 11(5):453–477CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  44. Okamoto T, Kawahara M (1997) 3-D sloshing analysis by an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element method. Int J Comput Fluid Dyn 8(2):129–146MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  45. Olsen H (1976) “What is sloshing?” Paper presented at seminar on liquid sloshing, Det Norske VeritasGoogle Scholar
  46. Osher SJ, Sethian JA (1988) Fronts propagating with curvature dependent speed: algorithms based on Hamilton-Jacobi formulations. J Comput Phys 79:12–49MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  47. Oumeraci H (1994) Review and analysis of vertical breakwater failures—lessons learned. Coast Eng 22(1–2):3–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Oumeraci H, Klammer P, Partenscky H (1993) Classification of breaking wave loads on vertical structures. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 119(4):381–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Oumeraci H, Bruce T, Klammer P, Easson WJ (1995) PIV measurement of breaking wave kinematics and impact loading of caisson breakwaters. Paper presented at proceedings 23rd international conference on coastal engineering. Venice, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  50. Panigrahy PK, Saha UK, Maity D (2009) Experimental studies on sloshing behavior due to horizontal movement of liquids in baffled tanks. Ocean Eng 36(3–4):213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pantazopoulous MS (1988) Three-dimensional sloshing of water on decks. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Jersey City, NJGoogle Scholar
  52. Pedrozo-Acuna A, de Alegria-Arzaburu AR, Torres-Freyermuth A, Mendoza E, Silva R (2011) Laboratory investigation of pressure gradients induced by plunging breakers. Coast Eng 58(8):722–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Peregrine DH (2003) Water-wave impact on walls. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 35(1):23–43MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rafiee A, Pistani F, Thiagarajan K (2011) Study of liquid sloshing: numerical and experimental approach. Comput Mech 47(1):65–75MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  55. Ray SF (2002) Applied photographic optics: lenses and optical systems for photography, film, video, electronic and digital imaging, 3rd edn. Focal Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  56. Rhee SH (2005) Unstructured grid based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method for liquid tank sloshing. J Fluids Eng 127(3):572–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rivillas-Ospina G, Pedrozo-Acuna A, Silva R, Torres-Freyermuth A, Gutierrez C (2012) Estimation of the velocity field induced by plunging breakers in the surf and swash zones. Exp Fluids 52(1):53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ryu Y, Chang K-A (2008) Green water void fraction due to breaking wave impinging and overtopping. Exp Fluids 45(5):883–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ryu Y, Chang K-A, Lim H-J (2005) Use of bubble image velocimetry for measurement of plunging wave impinging on structure and associated greenwater. Meas Sci Technol 16:1945–1953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ryu Y, Chang K-A, Mercier R (2007a) Application of dam-break flow to green water prediction. Appl Ocean Res 29(3):128–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ryu Y, Chang K-A, Mercier R (2007b) Runup and green water velocities due to breaking wave impinging and overtopping. Exp Fluids 43(4):555–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Stutz B, Reboud JL (1997) Experiments on unsteady cavitation. Exp Fluids 22:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Thiagarajan KP, Rakshit D, Repalle N (2011) The air–water sloshing problem: fundamental analysis and parametric studies on excitation and fill levels. Ocean Eng 38(2–3):498–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wang CY, Teng JT, Huang GPG (2011) Numerical simulation of sloshing motion inside a two dimensional rectangular tank by level set method. Int J Numer Meth Heat Fluid Flow 21(1):5–31CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  65. Wu N-J, Chang K-A (2011) Simulation of free-surface waves in liquid sloshing using a domain-type meshless method. Int J Numer Meth Fluids 67(3):269–288MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  66. Yung TW, Ding J, He H, Sandström R (2009) LNG sloshing: characteristics and scaling laws. In: The nineteenth international offshore and polar engineering conference, Osaka, Japan, pp 21–26Google Scholar
  67. Zhou Z, de Kat JO, Buchner B (1999) A nonlinear 3-D approach to simulate green water dynamics on deck. Paper presented at proceedings of 7th international symposium on numerical ship hydrodynamics, May 7Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Youn Kyung Song
    • 1
  • Kuang-An Chang
    • 1
  • Yonguk Ryu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sun Hong Kwon
    • 3
  1. 1.Zachry Department of Civil EngineeringTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.River Experiment CenterKorea Institute of Construction TechnologyAndongKorea
  3. 3.Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringPusan National UniversityPusanKorea

Personalised recommendations