Experiments in Fluids

, 54:1575 | Cite as

Flow structures around a flapping wing considering ground effect

  • Tien Van Truong
  • Jihoon Kim
  • Min Jun Kim
  • Hoon Cheol Park
  • Kwang Joon Yoon
  • Doyoung Byun
Research Article

Abstract

Over the past several decades, there has been great interest in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping flight, namely the two flight modes of hovering and forward flight. However, there has been little focus on the aerodynamic characteristics during takeoff of insects. In a previous study we found that the Rhinoceros Beetle (Trypoxylusdichotomus) takes off without jumping, which is uncommon for other insects. In this study we built a scaled-up electromechanical model of a flapping wing and investigated fluid flow around the beetle’s wing model. In particular, the present dynamically scaled mechanical model has the wing kinematics pattern achieved from the real beetle’s wing kinematics during takeoff. In addition, we could systematically change the three-dimensional inclined motion of the flapping model through each stroke. We used digital particle image velocimetry with high spatial resolution, and were able to qualitatively and quantitatively study the flow field around the wing at a Reynolds number of approximately 10,000. The present results provide insight into the aerodynamics and the evolution of vortical structures, as well as the ground effect experienced by a beetle’s wing during takeoff. The main unsteady mechanisms of beetles have been identified and intensively analyzed as the stability of the leading edge vortex (LEV) during strokes, the delayed stall during upstroke, the rotational circulation in pronation periods, and wake capture in supination periods. Due to the ground effect, the LEV was enhanced during half downstroke, and the lift force could thus be increased to lift the beetle during takeoff. This is useful for researchers in developing a micro air vehicle that has a beetle-like flapping wing motion.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (MOV 2835 kb)

References

  1. Ahmed MR, Sharma SD (2005) An investigation on the aerodynamics of a symmetrical airfoil in ground effect. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 29:633–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed MR, Takasaki T, Kohama Y (2007) Aerodynamics of a NACA4412 airfoil in ground effect. AIAA J 45:37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ansari S, Phillips N, Stabler G, Wilkins P, Żbikowski R, Knowles K (2009) Experimental investigation of some aspects of insect-like flapping flight aerodynamics for application to micro air vehicles. Exp Fluids 46:777–798. doi:10.1007/s00348-009-0661-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beem H, Rival D, Triantafyllou M (2012) On the stabilization of leading-edge vortices with spanwise flow. Exp Fluids 52:511–517. doi:10.1007/s00348-011-1241-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Birch JM, Dickinson MH (2001) Spanwise flow and the attachment of the leading-edge vortex on insect wings. Nature 412:729–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Birch JM, Dickson WB, Dickinson MH (2004) Force production and flow structure of the leading edge vortex on flapping wings at high and low Reynolds numbers. J Exp Biol 207:1063–1072. doi:10.1242/jeb.00848 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bomphrey RJ, Lawson NJ, Harding NJ, Taylor GK, Thomas ALR (2005) The aerodynamics of Manducasexta: digital particle image velocimetry analysis of the leading-edge vortex. J Exp Biol 208:1079–1094. doi:10.1242/jeb.01471 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Card G, Dickinson M (2008) Performance trade-offs in the flight initiation of Drosophila. J Exp Biol 211:341–353. doi:10.1242/jeb.012682 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheng N-S (2008) Formula for the viscosity of a glycerol–water mixture. Ind Eng Chem Res 47:3285–3288. doi:10.1021/ie071349z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. David L, Jardin T, Braud P, Farcy A (2012) Time-resolved scanning tomography PIV measurements around a flapping wing. Exp Fluids 52:857–864. doi:10.1007/s00348-011-1148-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dickinson MH, Lehmann F-O, Sane SP (1999) Wing rotation and the aerodynamic basis of insect flight. Science 284:1954–1960. doi:10.1126/science.284.5422.1954 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ellington CP (1984) The aerodynamics of hovering insect flight. III. Kinematics. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 305:41–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ellington CP, Berg CVD, Willmott AP, Thomas AIR (1996) Leading-edge vortices in insect flight. Nature 384:626–630. doi:10.1038/384626a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gao T, Liu N-s, Lu X-y (2008) Numerical analysis of the ground effect on insect hovering. J Hydrodyn Ser B 20:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hedrick TL (2008) Software techniques for two- and three-dimensional kinematic measurements of biological and biomimetic systems. Bioinspir Biomim 3:034001. doi:10.1088/1748-3182/3/3/034001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hyungmin P, Haecheon C (2012) Kinematic control of aerodynamic forces on an inclined flapping wing with asymmetric strokes. Bioinspir Biomim 7:016008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ishihara D, Yamashita Y, Horie T, Yoshida S, Niho T (2009) Passive maintenance of high angle of attack and its lift generation during flapping translation in crane fly wing. J Exp Biol 212:3882–3891. doi:10.1242/jeb.030684 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim D, Gharib M (2010) Experimental study of three-dimensional vortex structures in translating and rotating plates. Exp Fluids 49:329–339. doi:10.1007/s00348-010-0872-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kurtulus DF, David L, Farcy A, Alemdaroglu N (2008) Aerodynamic characteristics of flapping motion in hover. Exp Fluids 44:23–36. doi:10.1007/s00348-007-0369-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Le TQ, Byun D, Saputra P, Ko JH, Park HC, Kim M (2010) Numerical investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a hovering Coleopteran insect. J Theor Biol 266:485–495MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Le TQ, Truong TV, Park SH, et al. (2013) Improvement of the aerodynamic performance by wing flexibility and elytra–hind wing interaction of a beetle during forward flight. J R Soc Interface 10 doi:10.1098/rsif.2013.0312
  22. Lehmann F-O (2004) The mechanisms of lift enhancement in insect flight. Naturwissenschaften 91:101–122. doi:10.1007/s00114-004-0502-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lehmann F-O (2009) Wing–wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings. Exp Fluids 46:765–775. doi:10.1007/s00348-008-0595-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liang Z, Xinyan D, Sanjay PS (2011) Modulation of leading edge vorticity and aerodynamic forces in flexible flapping wings. Bioinspir Biomim 6:036007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lu Y, Shen GX (2008) Three-dimensional flow structures and evolution of the leading-edge vortices on a flapping wing. J Exp Biol 211:1221–1230. doi:10.1242/jeb.010652 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lu Y, Shen GX, Lai GJ (2006) Dual leading-edge vortices on flapping wings. J Exp Biol 209:5005–5016. doi:10.1242/jeb.02614 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lua KB, Lim TT, Yeo KS (2008) Aerodynamic forces and flow fields of a two-dimensional hovering wing. Exp Fluids 45(6):1047–1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lua K, Lai K, Lim T, Yeo K (2010) On the aerodynamic characteristics of hovering rigid and flexible hawkmoth-like wings. Exp Fluids 49:1263–1291. doi:10.1007/s00348-010-0873-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Park H, Choi HC (2012) Kinematic control of aerodynamic forces on an inclined flapping wing with asymmetric strokes. Bioinspir Biomim 7:016008. doi:10.1088/1748-3182/7/1/016008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Poelma C, Dickson W, Dickinson M (2006) Time-resolved reconstruction of the full velocity field around a dynamically-scaled flapping wing. Exp Fluids 41:213–225. doi:10.1007/s00348-006-0172-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ramamurti R, Sandberg WC (2002) A three-dimensional computational study of the aerodynamic mechanisms of insect flight. J Exp Biol 205:1507–1518Google Scholar
  32. Rayner JMV (1991) On the aerodynamics of animal flight in ground effect. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 334:119–128. doi:10.1098/rstb.1991.0101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sane SP (2003) The aerodynamics of insect flight. J Exp Biol 206:4191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sane SP, Dickinson MH (2001) The control of flight force by a flapping wing: lift and drag production. J Exp Biol 204:2607–2626Google Scholar
  35. Sane SP, Dickinson MH (2002) The aerodynamic effects of wing rotation and a revised quasi-steady model of flapping flight. J Exp Biol 205:1087–1096Google Scholar
  36. Shyy W, Lian Y, Tang J, Viieru D, Liu H (2008) Aerodynamics of low Reynold Number flyers. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  37. Sitorus PE, Park HC, Byun D, Goo NS, Han CH (2010) The role of Elytra in beetle flight: I. Generation of Quasi-Static Aerodynamic Forces. J Bionic Eng 7:354–363. doi:10.1016/S1672-6529(10)60267-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Srygley RB, Thomas ALR (2002) Unconventional lift-generating mechanisms in free-flying butterflies. Nature 420:660–664. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v420/n6916/suppinfo/nature01223_S1.html Google Scholar
  39. Sudhakar Y, Vengadesan S (2010) Flight force production by flapping insect wings in inclined stroke plane kinematics. Comput Fluids 39:683–695MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sun M, Tang J (2002) Unsteady aerodynamic force generation by a model fruit fly wing in flapping motion. J Exp Biol 205:55Google Scholar
  41. Thomas ALR, Taylor GK, Srygley RB, Nudds RL, Bomphrey RJ (2004) Dragonfly flight: free-flight and tethered flow visualizations reveal a diverse array of unsteady lift-generating mechanisms, controlled primarily via angle of attack. J Exp Biol 207:4299–4323. doi:10.1242/jeb.01262 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tyson LH (2008) Software techniques for two- and three-dimensional kinematic measurements of biological and biomimetic systems. Bioinspir Biomim 3:034001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Van Truong T, Le TQ, Byun D, Park HC (2011) Take of mechanics in beetle flight. In: International conference on intelligent unmaned system 2011, Chiba, Japan, pp 74Google Scholar
  44. Van Truong T, Le TQ, Byun D, Park HC, Kim M (2012a) Flexible wing kinematics of a free-flying beetle (Rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylusdichotomus). J Bionic Eng 9:177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Van Truong T, Le TQ, Tran HT, Park HC, Yoon KJ, Byun D (2012b) Flow visualization of rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylusdichotomus) in free flight. J Bionic Eng 9:304–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Weis-Fogh T (1973) Quick estimates of flight fitness in hovering animals, including novel mechanisms for lift production. J Exp Biol 59:169–230Google Scholar
  47. Willmott A, Ellington C (1997) The mechanics of flight in the hawkmoth Manducasexta. I. Kinematics of hovering and forward flight. J Exp Biol 200:2705–2722Google Scholar
  48. Wu JH, Sun M (2004) Unsteady aerodynamic forces of a flapping wing. J Exp Biol 207:1137–1150. doi:10.1242/jeb.00868 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhang X, Molina J (2011) Aerodynamics of a heaving airfoil in ground effect. AIAA J 49:1168–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhao L, Huang Q, Deng X, Sane SP (2010) Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings. J R Soc Interface 7:485–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tien Van Truong
    • 1
  • Jihoon Kim
    • 2
  • Min Jun Kim
    • 3
  • Hoon Cheol Park
    • 4
  • Kwang Joon Yoon
    • 1
  • Doyoung Byun
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Aerospace Information EngineeringKonkuk UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSungkyunkwan UniversitySuwonRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringDrexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Advanced Technology FusionKonkuk UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations