Advertisement

Experiments in Fluids

, 54:1539 | Cite as

Single- and dual-band collection toluene PLIF thermometry in supersonic flows

  • Victor A. Miller
  • Mirko Gamba
  • M. Godfrey Mungal
  • Ronald K. Hanson
Research Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Application of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics 2012

Abstract

Toluene PLIF has been applied to image temperature in supersonic flowfields containing shock waves. Single- and dual-camera imaging schemes with a single excitation wavelength (266 nm) are presented, and the dual-camera scheme is optimized for imaging temperature from 300 to 900 K. The single-camera technique is implemented to verify the diagnostic and image temperature in uniform pressure, uniformly seeded flowfields; calibration is done using the signal ratio measured across an oblique shock wave of known Mach number. The dual-camera technique utilizes the redshift of toluene fluorescence with increasing temperature for temperature imaging in non-uniform pressure and temperature flowfields. Both single- and dual-camera techniques are verified and demonstrated by imaging the flow behind normal shock waves and oblique shock waves, and the dual-camera technique is further extended to image temperature in the non-uniform pressure and temperature field behind a bow shock. Good agreement is observed between the measured and expected temperature distributions calculated from ideal shock relations or CFD solutions. The accuracy of each technique is also evaluated; for dual-camera thermometry, SNR in temperature ranging from 25 at 300 K to 15 at 900 K is observed in single-shot temperature images.

Keywords

Mach Number Supersonic Flow Oblique Shock Incident Shock Wave Expansion Tube 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program (PSAAP) at Stanford University, award number DE-FC52-08NA28614. This work is also supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). The authors would also like to thank Jon Koch, Wieland Koban, and Christof Schulz for the toluene fluorescence spectra data they graciously provided. Additionally, Victor A. Miller is supported by the Claudia and William Coleman Foundation Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

References

  1. Agard DA (1984) Optical sectioning microscopy: cellular architecture in three dimensions. Ann Rev Biophys Bioeng 13:191–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cheung B (2011) Trace-based planar laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics: quantitative photophysics and time-resolved imaging. PhD thesis, Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheung BH, Hanson RK (2010) CW laser-induced fluorescence of toluene for time-resolved imaging of gaseous flows. Appl Phys B 98:581–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cundy M, Trunk P, Dreizler A, Sick V (2011) Gas-phase toluene LIF temperature imaging near surfaces at 10 kHz. Exp Fluids 51(5):1169–1176. doi: 10.1007/s00348-011-1137-8 Google Scholar
  5. Faust S, Dreier T, Schulz C (2011) Temperature and bath gas composition dependence of effective fluorescence lifetimes of toluene excited at 266 nm. Chem Phys 383(1–3):6–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gibson SF, Lanni F (1992) Experimental test of an analytical model of aberration in an oil-immersion objective lens used in three-dimensional light microscopy. J Opt Soc Am A 9(1):154–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hanson RK (1986) Combustion diagnostics: planar flowfield imaging. In: 21st international symposium on combustion, the Combustions Institute, pp 1677–1691Google Scholar
  8. Heltsley WN, Snyder JA, Houle AJ, Davidson DF, Mungal MG, Hanson RK (2006) Design and characterization of the stanford 6 inch expansion tube. In: 42nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Sacramento, California, AIAA, pp 2006–4443Google Scholar
  9. Kim CS (1956) Experimental studies of supersonic flow pas a circular cylinder. J Phys Soc Jpn 11(4):439–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Koban W (2005) Photophysical characterization of toluene and 3-pentanone for quantitative imaging of fuel/air ratio and temperature in combustion systems. PhD thesis, University of HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  11. Koban W, Koch JD, Hanson RK, Schulz C (2004) Absorption and fluorescence of toluene vapor at elevated temperatures. Phys Chem Phys 6:2940–2945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koban W, Koch JD, Hanson RK, Schulz C (2005a) Oxygen quenching of toluene fluorescence at elevated temperatures. Appl Phys B 80:777–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Koban W, Koch JD, Hanson RK, Schulz C (2005b) Toluene LIF at elevated temperatures: implications for fuel-air ratio measurements. Appl Phys B 80:147–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Koch J (2005) Fuel tracer photophysics for quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence. PhD thesis, Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  15. Koch JD, Hanson RK, Koban W, Schulz C (2004) Rayleigh-calibrated fluorescence quantum yield measurements of acetone and 3-pentanone. Appl Opt 43(31):5901–5910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kohse-Höinghaus K, Jeffries JB (2002) Applied combustion diagnostics. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Kychakoff G, Howe RD, Hanson RK (1984) Quantitative flow visualization technique for measurements in combustion gases. Appl Opt 23(5):704–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liepmann HW, Roshko A (1985) Elements of gasdynamics. Dover, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Lozano A, Yip B, Hanson RK (1992) Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence. Exp Fluids 13:369–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Luong M, Koban W, Schulz C (2006) Novel strategies for imaging temperature distribution using toluene LIF. J Phys Conf Ser 45:133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McBride BJ, Zehe MJ, Gordon S (2002) NASA Glenn coefficients for calculating thermodynamic properties of individual species. Tech. Rep. TP-2002-211556, NASAGoogle Scholar
  22. Mohri K, Luong M, Vanhove G, Dreier T, Schulz C (2011) Imaging of the oxygen distribution in an isothermal turbulent free jet using two-color toluene LIF imaging. Appl Phys B 103:707–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nejj H, Johansson B, Alden M (1994) Development and demonstration of 2d-LIF for studies of mixture preparation in SI engines. Comb Flame 99(2):449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Petersen B, Ghandhi J, Koch J (2008) Fluorescence saturation measurements of 3-pentanone. Appl Phys B 93:639–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Seitzman JM, Kychakoff G, Hanson RK (1985) Instantaneous temperature field measurements using planar laser-induced fluorescence. Opt Lett 10(9):439–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Seitzman JM, Hanson RK, DeBarber PA, Hess CF (1994) Application of quantitative two-line oh planar laser-induced fluorescence for temporally resolved planar thermometry in reacting flows. Appl Opt 33(18):4000–4012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shaevitz JW, Fletcher DA (2007) Enhanced three-dimensional deconvolution microscopy using a measured depth-varying point-spread function. J Opt Soc Am A 24(9):2622–2627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Snyder DL, Hammoud AM, White RL (1993) Image recovery from data acquired with a charge-coupled-device camera. J Opt Soc Am A 10(5):1014–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Trimpi RL (1962) A preliminary theoretical study of the expansion tube, a new device for producing high-enthalpy short-duration hypersonic gas flows. Tech. rep., NASAGoogle Scholar
  30. Wolfrum J (1998) Lasers in combustion: from basic theory to practical devices. In: Proceeding of the Combustion Institute, vol 27Google Scholar
  31. Yoo J, Mitchell D, Davidson DF, Hanson RK (2010) Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in shock tube flows. Exp Fluids 45:751–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yoo J, Mitchell D, Davidson D, Hanson R (2011) Near-wall imaging using toluene-based planar laser-induced fluorescence in shock tube flow. Shock Waves 21:523–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor A. Miller
    • 1
  • Mirko Gamba
    • 2
  • M. Godfrey Mungal
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ronald K. Hanson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of Aerospace EngineeringThe University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Department of EngineeringSanta Clara UniversitySanta ClaraUSA

Personalised recommendations